Right Of Children To Free And Compulsory Education Act

The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009, represents the consequential legislation to Article 21A inserted in the Constitution of India through the Constitution (86th Amendment) Act, 2002. The RTE Act has become operative with effect from 1st April 2010. The GOI had notified the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Rules, 2010 in the Official Gazette on 9th April, 2010. The RTE Act provides the legislative framework for Universalization of Elementary Education (UEE). SSA has been harmonized with RTE mandate. The salient features of the RTE Act, 2009 include :

  • The right of children to free and compulsory education till completion of elementary education in a neighborhood school.
  • It clarifies that 'compulsory education' means obligation of the appropriate government to provide free elementary education and ensure compulsory admission, attendance and completion of elementary education to every child in the six to fourteen age group. 'Free' means that no child shall be liable to pay any kind of fee or charges or expenses which may prevent him or her from pursuing and completing elementary education.
  • It makes provisions for a non-admitted child to be admitted to an age appropriate class.
  • It specifies the duties and responsibilities of appropriate Governments, local authority and parents in providing free and compulsory education, and sharing of financial and other responsibilities between the Central and State Governments.
  • It lays down the norms and standards relating inter alia to Pupil Teacher Ratios (PTRs), buildings and infrastructure, school working days, teacher working hours.
  • It provides for rational deployment of teachers by ensuring that the specified pupil teacher ratio is maintained for each school, rather than just as an average for the State or District or Block, thus ensuring that there is no urban-rural imbalance in teacher postings. It also provides for prohibition of deployment of teachers for non-educational work, other than decennial census, elections to local authority, state legislatures and parliament, and disaster relief.
  • It provides for appointment of appropriately trained teachers, i.e. teachers with the requisite entry and academic qualifications.
  • It prohibits :
    1. physical punishment and mental harassment,
    2. Screening procedures for admission of children, capitation fees,
    3. private tuition by teachers,
    4. running of schools without recognition.
  • It provides for development of curriculum in consonance with the values enshrined in the Constitution, and which would ensure the all-round development of the child, building on the child's knowledge, potentiality and talent and making the child free of fear, trauma and anxiety through a system of child friendly and child centered learning.
  • It provides for protection and monitoring of the child's right to free and compulsory education and redressal of grievances by the National and State Commissions for protection of Child Rights, which shall have the powers of a civil court.

Career Scope in Print Media

Print media are lightweight, portable, disposable publications printed on paper and circulated as physical copies in forms we call books, newspapers, magazines and newsletters. They hold informative and entertaining content that is of general or special interest. They are published either once or daily, weekly, biweekly, monthly, bimonthly or quarterly. Print Media is the oldest form of media. But even today it is growing from strength to strength. Around 4000 small, medium and large newspapers and magazines across the county are registered with the Registrar of Newspapers every year. This indicates that it is a growing sector where employment opportunities are increasing with each passing day. Most of the young aspirants who want to enter the print media prefer reporting, but newspapers and magazines also seek young talent as photographers, artists, editors, computer experts, librarians, and cartoonists. Students who have writing ability, graphics or photo skills, curiosity and deter →

Oscars 2018 (90th Academy Awards Winners) List Best Picture Actor

Oscar Award 2018 (Also called 90th annual Academy Awards) ceremony was held on 4th March 2018. The Shape of Water led the 90th Academy Awards, winning best picture and best director (for Guillermo del Toro). The film also nabbed prizes for production design and original score. Gary Oldman won the lead actor award for his work as Winston Churchill in Darkest Hour. Frances McDormand earned her second best actress Oscar for her role as a grieving mother in Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, Missouri. Winner List of Oscar Award 2018 (90th annual Academy Awards) Best Picture - The Shape of Water Actor In A Leading Role - Gary Oldman, Darkest Hour Actress In A Leading Role - Frances Mcdormand, Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, Missouri Best Directing - Guillermo Del Toro, The Shape Of Water Original Song - Remember Me from coco Music and lyric by kristen anderson-lopez and robert lopez Original Score - Shape of Water, Alexandre Desplat Cinematography - Blade Runner 2049, Roger A. Deakins Orig →

What is the Indo US Civilian Nuclear Deal?

India and the United States signed a landmark deal in October 2008, which allows India access to US civil nuclear fuel and technology. What is it that makes this deal so significant? How does India stand to gain from it ? Here are some answers to these questions : What is the Indo-U.S. Civilian Nuclear Deal ? This is a deal between India and the United States for civil nuclear cooperation. Under this agreement, the United States can sell civilian nuclear fuel and technology to India. India in turn, has to separate its civil and military nuclear facilities and place all its civil nuclear facilities under International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) inspection. The accord took three years to be finalized, during which it went through a series of complex stages that included amendment of U.S. domestic law, formulation of a civil-military nuclear separation plan in India, an India-IAEA safeguards (inspections) agreement and the grant of an exemption for India by the Nuclear Suppliers' →

Genetically Modified Food or Crops

Genetic Modification Genetic modification refers to techniques used to manipulate the genetic composition of an organism by adding specific useful genes. A gene is a sequence of DNA that contains information that determines a particular characteristic/trait. All organisms have DNA (genes). Genes are located in chromosomes. Genes are units of inheritance that are passed from one generation to the next and provide instructions for development and function of the organism. Crops that are developed through genetic modification are referred to as genetically modified (GM) crops, transgenic crops or genetically engineered (GE) crops. Over the last 30 years, the field of genetic engineering has developed rapidly due to the greater understanding of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as the chemical double helix code from which genes are made. The term genetic engineering is used to describe the process by which the genetic makeup of an organism can be altered using “recombinant DNA technology.” This →

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