The atmosphere is a thick gaseous envelope which surrounds the earth from all sides and is attached the earth's surface by gravitational force. It filters the incoming solar radiation and thus prevents the ultraviolet rays to reach the earth's surface. Composition of the Atmosphere The atmosphere is composed of gases, water vapour and particulates. Among the gases, Nitrogen is in the highest amount, followed by Oxygen, Argon, Carbon dioxide, Neon, Helium, Ozone, hydrogen etc. in that order. Besides these gases, water vapor, dust particles and other particulates are also present in varying am

Latitudes Longitudes and International Date Line

Latitudes It can be defined as the angular distance measured at the centre of the Earth with espect to any point on the meridian. These are depicted in degrees, minutes and seconds. Equator is called the 0° latitude. These are imaginary circles, drawn on the surface of the earth, at an interrval of 1° on both the hemispheres making the total number of latitudes to 181. 23 l/2 ° latitude on the Northern hemisphere is called the Tropic of Cancer (23 l/2°N), whereas in the southern hemisphere the same latitude is called the Tropic of Capricorn (23 l/2 ° S). 66 l/2° latitude in the northern hemisp

Air Masses Fronts and Cyclones

Air Mass: An air mass may be defined as a large body of air whose physical properties, especially temperature and humidity are more or less uniform horizontally for hundreds of kilometres. Fronts: A Front is that sloping boundary which separates two opposing air masses having contrasting characteristics in terms of air temperature, humidity, density, pressure and wind direction. Classification of Fronts Warm Fronts : Warm front is that gently sloping frontal surface along which warm and light air becomes active and aggressive and rises rapidly over the cold and dense air. Cold Fronts : In this

Mountain Ranges of the World

 NameLocationHighest Point 1. Cordillera de Los Andes Western S America Aconcagua 2. Rockies Western N America Mount Albert 3. Himalaya-Karakoram-Hindukush South Central Asia Mount Everest 4. Great Dividing Range Eastern Australia Mount Kosciusko 5. Trans-Antarctica Mountains Antarctica Mount Vinson Massif 6. Tien Shan South Central Asia Pike Poveda 7. Altai Central Asia Gora Velukha 8. Ural Central Russia Gora Noradnaya 9. Kamchatka Eastern Russia Kluchevskaya Sopka 10. Atlas North West Africa Jewel Taubcal 11. Verkhoyansk Eastern Russia Gora mas Khaya 12. Western G

Crops and Leading Producers States

Crops NameNo 1 ProducerNo 2 ProducerNo 3 Producer Bajra Gujarat Rajasthan Barley Uttar Pradesh Rajasthan Cardamom Karnataka Kerala Castor seed Gujarat Andhra Pradesh Chillies (dry) Tamil Nadu Andhra Pradesh Coffee Karnataka Kerala Coriander Rajasthan Andhra Pradesh Cotton Gujarat Maharashtra Andhra Pradesh Ginger (dry) Kerala Himachal Pradesh Gram Rajasthan Uttar Pradesh Groundnut Gujarat Andhra Pradesh Tamil Nadu Jowar Maharashtra Karnataka Jute West Bengal Bihar Assam Linseed Madhya Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Maize Karnataka Andhra Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Mesta Andhra Pradesh Od

Famous Cities and River Banks in India and World

CityCountryRiver Adelaide Australia Torrens Amsterdam Netherlands Amsel Alexandria Egypt Nile Ankara Turkey Kazil Allahabad India At the confluence of the Ganga and Yamuna Agra India Yamuna Ayodhya India Saryu Ahmedabad India Sabarmati Badrinath India Alaknanda Bareilly India Ram Ganga Bangkok Thailand Chao Praya Basra Iraq Euphrates and Tigris Baghdad Iraq Tigris Berlin Germany Spree Bonn Germany Rhine Budapest Hungary Daunbe Bristol U. K. Avon Buenos Aires Argentina Laplata Cuttack India Mahanadi Curnool India Tungabhadra Chittagong Bangladesh Majyani Canton China

Major Straits of the world

Name Joins Location Malacca Strait Andaman Sea & South China Sea Indonesia - Malaysia Palk Strait Palk Bay & Bay of Bengal India-Sri Lanka Sunda Strait Java Sea & Indian Ocean Indonesia Yucatan Strait Gulf of Mexico and Carribbean Sea Mexico-Cuba Mesina Strait Mediterranean Sea Italy-Sicily Otranto Strait Adriatic Sea & Ionian Sea Italy-Albania Bab-el-Mandeb Strait Red Sea & Gulf of Aden Yemen-Djibouti Cook Strait South Pacific Ocean New Zealand (N & S islands) Mozambique Strait Indian Ocean Mozambique - Malagassy North Channel Irish Sea & Atlantic Ocea

Mineral Resources in India

These principal minerals found in the country along with their estimated reserves/resources are given below: BAUXITE The Total Resources of Bauxite as per United Nations Framework Classification (UNFC) in the country are placed at about 3,290 million tonnes as on 1.4.2005. These resources include 899 million tonnes of Reserves and 2,391 million tonnes of Remaining resources. Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand and Maharashtra are the principal states where bauxite deposits are located. Major deposits are concentrated in the East Coast Bauxite deposits of Od

World Climate

The Hot, Wet Equatorial Climate Distribution:It is found between 5° and 10° north and south of the equator.It is dominantly found in the lowlands of the Amazon, the Cango, Malaysia and the East Indies.Climate:There is great uniformity of temperature through out the year.The mean monthly temperatures are always around 24 to 27°C, with very little variation.There is no winter.Precipitation is heavy between 60 inches and 10 inches, and well distributed throughout the year.Natural VegetationIt support a luxuriant type of vegetation - the tropical rain forest.Amazon tropical rain forest is known as


A volcano is a vent, or opening, usually circular in form, through which gases, melted lava and fragments of rocks are ejected from the highly heated interior to the surface of the earth. Crater: The narrow pipe, through which the magma comes out on the surface, is called Volcanic Pipe. The funnel or cup-shaped opening, at the top of the volcanic cone, is called as the Crater. Crater Lake: When crater gets filled up with the rain-water, it forms as crater lakes for example Lonar lake in Maharashtra. Caldera is formed due to subduction of the crater or expansion of the volcanic mouth due to suc

Career Scope in Print Media

Print media are lightweight, portable, disposable publications printed on paper and circulated as physical copies in forms we call books, newspapers, magazines and newsletters. They hold informative and entertaining content that is of general or special interest. They are published either once or daily, weekly, biweekly, monthly, bimonthly or quarterly. Print Media is the oldest form of media. But even today it is growing from strength to strength. Around 4000 small, medium and large newspapers and magazines across the county are registered with the Registrar of Newspapers every year. This indicates that it is a growing sector where employment opportunities are increasing with each passing day. Most of the young aspirants who want to enter the print media prefer reporting, but newspapers and magazines also seek young talent as photographers, artists, editors, computer experts, librarians, and cartoonists. Students who have writing ability, graphics or photo skills, curiosity and deter →

65th National Film Awards for 2017

The 65th National Film Awards 2017 were announced by the Chairpersons of the juries on Feature Films, Best Writing on Cinema and members of Dadasaheb Phalke Award and Non-Feature films. The Feature Film Central panel was headed by Shri Shekhar Kapur, an eminent filmmaker known for his works in Hindi cinema and international cinema. The Non- Feature Film panel was headed by Shri. Nakul Kamte and the Best Cinema on Writing jury by Shri.Anant Vijay. The National Film Awards would be presented by Hon’ble President of India on May 3rd, 2018. Winner of 65th National Film Awards for 2017Best Feature Film - Village Rockstars, Language: Assamese, Directed by Rima Das. Indira Gandhi award for best debut film of a director - Sinjar, Language: Jasari, Directed by Pampally. Best Popular Film Providing Wholesome Entertainment- Baahubali - The Conclusion, Language: Telugu, Directed by S S Rajamouli. Nargis Dutt Award For Best Feature Film On National Integration - Dhappa, Language: Marathi, Directed →

What is the Indo US Civilian Nuclear Deal?

India and the United States signed a landmark deal in October 2008, which allows India access to US civil nuclear fuel and technology. What is it that makes this deal so significant? How does India stand to gain from it ? Here are some answers to these questions : What is the Indo-U.S. Civilian Nuclear Deal ? This is a deal between India and the United States for civil nuclear cooperation. Under this agreement, the United States can sell civilian nuclear fuel and technology to India. India in turn, has to separate its civil and military nuclear facilities and place all its civil nuclear facilities under International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) inspection. The accord took three years to be finalized, during which it went through a series of complex stages that included amendment of U.S. domestic law, formulation of a civil-military nuclear separation plan in India, an India-IAEA safeguards (inspections) agreement and the grant of an exemption for India by the Nuclear Suppliers' →

Genetically Modified Food or Crops

Genetic Modification Genetic modification refers to techniques used to manipulate the genetic composition of an organism by adding specific useful genes. A gene is a sequence of DNA that contains information that determines a particular characteristic/trait. All organisms have DNA (genes). Genes are located in chromosomes. Genes are units of inheritance that are passed from one generation to the next and provide instructions for development and function of the organism. Crops that are developed through genetic modification are referred to as genetically modified (GM) crops, transgenic crops or genetically engineered (GE) crops. Over the last 30 years, the field of genetic engineering has developed rapidly due to the greater understanding of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as the chemical double helix code from which genes are made. The term genetic engineering is used to describe the process by which the genetic makeup of an organism can be altered using “recombinant DNA technology.” This →

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