World Climate

The Hot, Wet Equatorial Climate Distribution:It is found between 5° and 10° north and south of the equator.It is dominantly found in the lowlands of the Amazon, the Cango, Malaysia and the East Indies.Climate:There is great uniformity of temperature through out the year.The mean monthly temperatures are always around 24 to 27°C, with very little variation.There is no winter.Precipitation is heavy between 60 inches and 10 inches, and well distributed throughout the year.Natural VegetationIt support a luxuriant type of vegetation - the tropical rain forest.Amazon tropical rain forest is known as


A volcano is a vent, or opening, usually circular in form, through which gases, melted lava and fragments of rocks are ejected from the highly heated interior to the surface of the earth. Crater: The narrow pipe, through which the magma comes out on the surface, is called Volcanic Pipe. The funnel or cup-shaped opening, at the top of the volcanic cone, is called as the Crater. Crater Lake: When crater gets filled up with the rain-water, it forms as crater lakes for example Lonar lake in Maharashtra. Caldera is formed due to subduction of the crater or expansion of the volcanic mouth due to suc

The Universe

Copernicus in 1543 A.D. proposed the heliocentric view, which states that the Sun is the centre of the Universe instead of the Earth. The Origin of the Universe Big-Bang Theoery: By E. George lamantor. According to him, 15 billion years ago there was a big heavenly body, made up of heavy matters. Due to sudden explosion (Big Bang) of this heavenly body, normal matters came out of it. And many celestial bodies were created as a result of aggregation of these normal matters. Gradually their size increased due to continuous accumulation of normal matter around them. In this way, galaxies were cre

The Solar System

The Sun and bodies revolving around it, which includes 8 planets, satellites, comets, meteors and asteroids, together constitute the solar system. The source of energy for the sun is the nuclear fusion reaction in which Hydrogen changes into Helium. The Sun The part of the sun that we can see in known as photosphere. The outer most part of the sun, which is visible only at the time of a solar eclipse, is known as corona. A storm of hot atoms which dissipates from the photosphere of the Sun, overcomes its gravity and goes into the outer space, is known as Solar Flares. When Solar Flares reach t


Rocks are made up of individual solid substance called minerals. A rock as any natural mass of mineral matter that makes up the earth's crust. On the basis of the formation, rocks are classified into : Igneous RocksSedimentary RocksMetamorphic RocksIgneous Rocks These rocks are formed by cooling, solidification and crystallization of hot and molten magma found below the earth crust. These are granular and crystalline rocks. These are also known as 'Primary or Ba'sic Rocks' because of the fact that these rocks were first to be formed and supply raw material for other types of rocks to be formed

Ocean Currents

When ocean water moves in a fixed direction within a fixed limit (of area) with very high velocity, it is called current. The velocity of a current is more than that of drift. | Ocean currents can be divided into two type warm currents and cold currents. The currents flowing from the equator to the poles are warm and those flowing from poles to the equator are cold. Due to Coriolis force, the Ocean currents in the Northern Hemisphere deflect towards their right and those in the Southern Hemisphere, towards their left. The only exception of this rule of the flow of ocean is found in the Indian

Mountains and Plateau

Mountains are such highlands whose slopes are steep and the peaks are pointed. Generally, the mountains are more than 1000 mts high. The mountains whose height is less than 1000 mts, are called hills. The highest point of a mountain or a hill is called its peak. A mountain range is a system of mountains and hills having several ridges, peaks, summits and valleys, formed in a particular period and spread in a narrow belt. Classification of Mountains Folded Mountains: These Mountains are the results of compressive forces, triggered by the endogenetic forces. When the rocks on (he surface of the

Motions of the Earth

The Earth has two types of motions: Rotational Motion Revolutional or Orbital MotionRotation : The Earth rotates on its axis, from west to east like a top. This motion is called Rotation of the Earth.Revolution : While rotating on its axis, the earth also goes around the sun in an elliptical path and completes one round in 365 days and 6 hours. The elliptical path traced by the earth is called its orbit. This motion of the earth is called revolution. Perihelion : When the earth is at the minimum distance from the sun, while in orbit, this position is known as perihelion. The earth is at


Different Landforms on the earth crust are caused by both endogenetic forces and exogenectic forces Endogenetic Forces The forces, which the affect crust of the earth, are divided into two broad categories on the basis of their sources of origin, they are Endogenetic Forces and Exogenetic Forces. The Endogenetic Forces (Diastroph forces, volcanic eruption, Earthquak etc.) give rise to several vertical irregularities, which leads to the formation of numerous varieties of relief features on the earth surface (e.g. Plateau, mountain, plain, lakes, faults, folds etc). Compressional Forces and Tens

Interior Structure of the Earth

The study of the earth's interior is the subject of Geology, Since, the interior part of the earth is not visible directly, knowledge about it is gathered through indirect means. The earth as a whole has been divided into 3 broad zones - Crust, Mantle and Core. The Crust The Average thickness of this upper most layer of the earth is about 30 km. The average density of the upper crust is 2.8 and that of the lower crust is 3.0. This difference in density is believed to be due to the pressure. This discontinuity in density between upper crust and lower crust is known as 'conrad discontinuity'. Si

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