Continent and Nation at a Glance


About Asia: Asia is the largest and most populous continent in the world. It is composed of a wide variety of ethnic groups, cultures, environments, economics, historical ties, and governmental systems. Geographically the continent makes up 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area, and 29.5% of its land area. In the west, Asia is bordered by Europe, the eastern coastline of the Mediterranean Sea, as well by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosporus Strait, the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. In the east, Asia is bordered by the Pacific Ocean, and an almost endless stretch of bays and seas. The Arctic Ocean and a handful of seas front the northern border, while the Bering Sea separates Asia from North America. In the southwest the Red Sea and isthmus of Suez separate the continent from Africa. The Indian Ocean fronts most of Asia's southern borders, along with a series of bays, gulfs and seas, as well as extensive chains of both inhabited and uninhabited islands.

Area of Asia: 43,820,000 sq km

Population in Asia: 4,384,844,097 (in 2015)

Climate in Asia: Very varied, extreme in north, monsoonal in the south and east.

Major River in Asia: Bramhaputra, Obi, Yenisei, Lena, Amoor, Yang-tse-Kiang, Mekong, Ganges, Hwang-ho and Indus

Major Mountain in Asia: Ural Mountains, Caucasus, Altai, Khinghan, Thian Shan, Hindoo Koosh, the Himalaya Mountains, Karakoram, Alps, Western Ghats etc.

Nation belongs to Asia:


About Europe: By the end of the 15th century, great powers emerged in Europe, with England, France, The Netherlands, Portugal and Spain playing predominant roles in global affairs from the 15th century onward, especially after the beginning of colonialism. The European colonial period, the 1500s to the mid 1900s, was the era when the European powers mentioned above established colonies in Asia, Africa, and the Americas. As people craved freedom across the globe, the European colonial era began to fall apart. Also damaging to the continent were World Wars I and II, as they were largely focused upon Europe. After the Berlin Wall came down on 1989, and after the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, Europe certainly changed for the better. European cultures and factions soon integrated, the Council of Europe was formed and the European Union (EU) blossomed in Western Europe. Today, Europe is a major economical and political center of power.

Area of Europe: 9,938,000 sq km

Population in Europe: 743,122,816 (in 2015)

Climate in Europe: Warm winds sweep freely across central Europe because the western edges of the continent are not shielded by significant mountain ranges. Consequently, those Atlantic Ocean winds in conjunction with the Gulf Stream, generally keep the European continent warmer than other locations at similar latitudes. In northern Europe summers are cooler and winters are longer and colder, with heavy snowfall. Eastern Europe is also cold in winter, but summers are frequently hotter than in the west. The Mediterranean region of Europe typically experiences hot, dry summers and mild, wet winters. During the summer, 4 to 6 months without significant rainfall is the norm, as most of the precipitation falls during the winter months. Most of the rain falls in winter and early spring. In the foothills and higher elevations of Europe's central and northern mountain ranges, summer temperatures are cool, while winters run cold with significant snowfall.

Major River in Europe: Dvina, Pechora, Volga, Ural, Kura, Rhine, Neva, Neman, Elbe, Danube and Douro etc

Major Mountain in Europe: Mount Elbrus, Monte Shkhara, Mount Blanc, Mount Rosa, Kjolen Mountains, Apennines Mountains, Caucasus Mountains, Carpathian Mountains, Balkan Mountains, Ural Mountains etc.

Nation belongs to Europe:


About Africa: Africa, the planet's 2nd largest continent and the second most-populous continent (after Asia) includes 54 individual countries.

Area of Africa: 30,221,532 sq km

Population in Africa: 1,166,239,305 (in 2015)

Climate in Africa: Most of Africa is in the tropics, and except for the peaks of mountains in the Great Rift Valley, it never freezes. The continent's northern half is primarily desert or arid, while its central and southern areas contain both savanna plains and very dense jungle (rainforest) regions. Africa is the hottest continent on earth; dry lands and deserts comprise 60% of the entire land surface. The Sahara Desert is the world's largest hot desert. To the immediate south of the Sahara Desert in the Sahel region, drought and annual rains way below average are rather common, and major dust storms are a frequent occurrence. In the central African rain forests warm to hot climate conditions are the norm with very high humidity; Africa's heaviest rains fall in this area. Summers in Southern Africa can be quite hot, especially along the coastal areas. Inland in the higher elevations, temperatures do moderate. Winters are generally mild, with some light snow up in the hills and mountains.

Major River in Africa: Nile River, Congo River, Niger River, Zambesi River, Orange River, Kasai River, Lualaba River, Senegal River, Limpopo River etc

Major Mountain in Africa: Mount Kilimanjaro, Mount Oku, Mount Meru, Jabel Marra, The Drakensberg, Atlas Mountain, Mount Elgon, Simien Mountains, Mount Stanley, Mount Keneya etc

Nation belongs to Africa:

North America

About North America: North America, the planet's 3rd largest continent, includes (23) countries and dozens of possessions and territories. It contains all Caribbean and Central America countries, Bermuda, Canada, Mexico, the United States of America, as well as Greenland - the world's largest island. Positioned in the planet's northern and western hemispheres, it's bordered in the north by the Arctic Ocean, in the east by the Atlantic Ocean, in the southeast by the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean.

Area of North America: 24,474,000 sq km

Population in North America: 361,127,818 (in 2015)

Climate in North America: Weather varies dramatically across the North American landscape. Climates range from Arctic cold to Equatorial heat, and everything in between. Precipitation and temperature levels modulate dramatically depending on location. Severe weather in the form of thunderstorms is a normal spring and summer occurrence across North America. Devastating tornadoes are also common in the spring and summer months, especially in the central part of the U.S. From June through October hurricanes occasionally strike the Caribbean islands, northern Central American countries, Gulf of Mexico states, Mexico, and the eastern coastline of the U.S.

Major River in North America: Churchill, Brazos, Colorado, Columbia, Fraser, Mackenzie, Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, Rio Grande, St. Lawrence, Yukon etc.

Major Mountain in North America: Rocky Mountains, Alaska, Mount McKinley, Mount Logan, Mount Orizaba, Mount St. Elias, Mount Ranier, Mount St. Helens, Mount Elbert etc.

Nation belongs to North America:

South America

About South America: South America, the planet's 4th largest continent, includes 12 independent countries and 3 major territories; the Falkland Islands, Galapagos Islands and French Guiana. It is the fifth most populous continent falling below Asia, Africa, Europe and North America. The continent contains the world's highest waterfall, Angel Falls in Venezuela; the largest river (by volume), the Amazon River; the longest mountain range, the Andes, and the driest place on earth, the Atacama Desert in Chile. It includes the largest rainforest, the Amazon Rainforest; the highest capital city, La Paz, Bolivia; the highest commercially navigable lake in the world, Lake Titicaca; and, excluding research stations in Antarctica, the world's southernmost permanently inhabited community, Puerto Toro, Chile.

Area of South America: 17,819,000 sq km

Population in South America: 415,053,269 (in 2015)

Climate in South America: The conditions in South America are hot, humid and wet in the coastal regions of Colombia and Venezuela, and along the Equator and in the massive Amazon. In the far north, trade winds bring much-needed cooling relief to the coastal areas of Guyana and Suriname. In the northeastern areas of Brazil - the hottest region in the country. In the far south, conditions are subtropical, with some chilly mornings, fall and winter. Atop the Tropic of Capricorn daily high temperatures are exceptionally warm in summer, with only slight variations in winter. The coastal regions of Chile are generally dry and hot in summer, while fall brings cooler temperatures followed by heavy rains and mountain snowfall in winter.

Major River in South America: Amazon, Parana, Orinoco, Tocantins, Madeira etc.

Major Mountain in South America: Andes Mountains, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Sierras de Cordoba, Wilhelmina Mountains, Mantiqueira Mountains etc.

Nation belongs to South America:


About Oceania: Oceania contains a wide variety of landforms, with most of the significant ones located in the countries of Australia, New Zealand and Papua New Guinea.

Area of Oceania: 8,112,000 sq km

Population in Oceania: 39,359,270 (in 2015)

Climate in Oceania: The Oceania islands that border the Equator are warm and humid throughout most of the year. Along the Tropic of Capricorn, conditions are more seasonal. Australia, has an overall average temperature of 12.9 C, or 55 F. With low rainfall and humidity through much of Australia and winter temperatures barely dipping below freezing, the climate is quite moderate, although much of interior tends toward drought and extreme summer heat is quite common. The overall climate of New Zealand is influenced by two main geographic features: the mountains and the ocean. Although its northern reaches enjoy a temperate climate, weather can change quickly across the country as weather fronts and tropical cyclones travel through this region of the South Pacific frequently.

Major River in Oceania: Lake Gairdner, Lake Carnegie, Lake Taupo, Lake Murray, Murray River, Murrumbidgee River, the Darling River

Major Mountain in Oceania: Mount Kosciuszko, The Victorian Alps, Mount Bogong, Mount Feathertop, Mount Hotham, Mount Kembla, Mount Tallebudgera, Mount Kembla etc

Nation belongs to Oceania:

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65th National Film Awards for 2017

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Genetically Modified Food or Crops

Genetic Modification Genetic modification refers to techniques used to manipulate the genetic composition of an organism by adding specific useful genes. A gene is a sequence of DNA that contains information that determines a particular characteristic/trait. All organisms have DNA (genes). Genes are located in chromosomes. Genes are units of inheritance that are passed from one generation to the next and provide instructions for development and function of the organism. Crops that are developed through genetic modification are referred to as genetically modified (GM) crops, transgenic crops or genetically engineered (GE) crops. Over the last 30 years, the field of genetic engineering has developed rapidly due to the greater understanding of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as the chemical double helix code from which genes are made. The term genetic engineering is used to describe the process by which the genetic makeup of an organism can be altered using “recombinant DNA technology.” This →

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