Photosynthesis is the process by which green plants and some other organisms convert light energy from the sun into chemical energy in the form of glucose (a sugar molecule). This process occurs in chloroplasts located in the mesophyll cells of leaves, using the pigment chlorophyll.
During photosynthesis, carbon dioxide from the air and water from the soil are taken in by the plant, and through a series of chemical reactions, they are converted into glucose, which is used by the plant as a source of energy and for growth. At the same time, oxygen is released into the atmosphere as a by-product of photosynthesis.
The overall chemical reaction of photosynthesis can be written as:
6CO2 + 6H2O + light energy -> C6H12O6 + 6O2
In this equation, glucose (C6H12O6) is the end-product of photosynthesis, and oxygen (O2) is released into the atmosphere.
Photosynthesis is a critical process in the biosphere, as it provides the energy that supports the growth and survival of plants, and in turn, provides food and oxygen for other organisms. The oxygen produced by photosynthesis also helps to regulate the Earth's atmosphere, and the carbon dioxide taken in during photosynthesis helps to remove excess carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, reducing the amount of greenhouse gases and mitigating the effects of climate change.
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