The atmosphere is a thick gaseous envelope which surrounds the earth from all sides and is attached the earth's surface by gravitational force. It filters the incoming solar radiation and thus prevents the ultraviolet rays to reach the earth's surface.

Composition of the Atmosphere

The atmosphere is composed of gases, water vapour and particulates. Among the gases, Nitrogen is in the highest amount, followed by Oxygen, Argon, Carbon dioxide, Neon, Helium, Ozone, hydrogen etc. in that order. Besides these gases, water vapor, dust particles and other particulates are also present in varying amounts.

  • Nitrogen (78%): Among the atmospheric gases, it is the most important. It is fixed by the leguminous plants into nitrogenous nutrients.
  • Oxygen (21%): This is the life-giving gas to the humans and animals. Green plants produce it during the process of photosynthesis.
  • Argon (0.93%): This is a noble gas.
  • Carbon dioxide (0.03%): This is a heavy gas. It is permeable for the incoming solar radiation but opaque for the outgoing terrestrial radiations. In this way, by trapping the heat, it works as a greenhouse gas. An International consensus is made to bring down its level by the Kyoto Protocol (1997).
  • Ozone : Though it is present in very less amount,, it is an important constituent of the atmosphere. It acts as a filter and absorbs the harmful ultraviolet rays. If Ultraviolet rays reach the earth's surface, they may cause skin cancer and other diseases. Montreal Protocol (1987) was agreed upon to save the ozone layer from depletion.
  • Water vapour : The water vapour content in the atmosphere ranges between 0-4% by volume. The water vapour content of the atmosphere decreases from the equator towards the poles, due to decreasing temperature. Climatically, water vapour is very important constituent of the atmosphere. The atmospheric water vapour is received through the evaporation of moisture and water from the water bodies, vegetation and soil covers. The moisture content of the atmosphere creates several forms of condensation and precipitation, e.g.- clouds, fogs, dew, rainfall, frost, hailstorm, ice, snowfall, etc.
  • Particulates : The solid particles present in the atmosphere include dust particles, salt particles, pollen, smoke-soot, volcanic ashes, etc. Dust particles are hygroscopic nuclei that help in the formation of water droplets, clouds and various forms of condensation and precipitation.

Five Layers of the Earth's Surface

On the basis of the characteristics of temperature and air pressure, there are five layers of the earth's surface upwards.

  1. Troposphere : It is the lower most and the most important layer of the atmosphere, as air all the weather phenomena occur in this layer. The average height of the troposphere is about 16-18 km. over the equator and 6-8 km. Over the poles. In this layer, temperature decrease with increasing height at the rate of 1°C/165 - or 6.5°C/1000 m. This rate of decrease temperature is called Normal lapse rate.
  2. Stratosphere:Temperature remains stable at the beginning of this layer but it suddenly starts changing after the height of 20 km. This layer of the atmosphere is almost free from the weather disturbances, hence it is preferred by the pilots to fly their aeroplanes.
  3. Mesosphere : This layer extends between 50 km and 80 km. Temperature again decreases with increasing height and reaches upto -100°C, which is the minimum temperature of the atmosphere.
  4. Ionoshphere : It extends from 80 km to 640 km. Electrically charged or ionized particles are abundantly found in this layer and temperatures increases with increasing height. This layer reflects back the radio waves.
  5. Exosphere : It represents the uppermost layers of the atmosphere. It extends beyond 640 km of height from the sea level. Electrically charged particles are found abundantly in this layer also and there are separate layer of N2, O2,He and H2. The atmosphere becomes rarefied at the height of 1000 km, and it ultimately merges with the space beyond the height of 1000 km.


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Career Scope in Print Media

Print media are lightweight, portable, disposable publications printed on paper and circulated as physical copies in forms we call books, newspapers, magazines and newsletters. They hold informative and entertaining content that is of general or special interest. They are published either once or daily, weekly, biweekly, monthly, bimonthly or quarterly. Print Media is the oldest form of media. But even today it is growing from strength to strength. Around 4000 small, medium and large newspapers and magazines across the county are registered with the Registrar of Newspapers every year. This indicates that it is a growing sector where employment opportunities are increasing with each passing day. Most of the young aspirants who want to enter the print media prefer reporting, but newspapers and magazines also seek young talent as photographers, artists, editors, computer experts, librarians, and cartoonists. Students who have writing ability, graphics or photo skills, curiosity and deter →

65th National Film Awards for 2017

The 65th National Film Awards 2017 were announced by the Chairpersons of the juries on Feature Films, Best Writing on Cinema and members of Dadasaheb Phalke Award and Non-Feature films. The Feature Film Central panel was headed by Shri Shekhar Kapur, an eminent filmmaker known for his works in Hindi cinema and international cinema. The Non- Feature Film panel was headed by Shri. Nakul Kamte and the Best Cinema on Writing jury by Shri.Anant Vijay. The National Film Awards would be presented by Hon’ble President of India on May 3rd, 2018. Winner of 65th National Film Awards for 2017Best Feature Film - Village Rockstars, Language: Assamese, Directed by Rima Das. Indira Gandhi award for best debut film of a director - Sinjar, Language: Jasari, Directed by Pampally. Best Popular Film Providing Wholesome Entertainment- Baahubali - The Conclusion, Language: Telugu, Directed by S S Rajamouli. Nargis Dutt Award For Best Feature Film On National Integration - Dhappa, Language: Marathi, Directed →

What is Bitcoin?

In 2009, an unknown programmer by the name of Satoshi Nakamoto put forward a whitepaper that proposed a creation of new form of digital currency - cryptocurrency. Cryptocurrency functions the same way as regular currencies do in that its used as a means of exchange, unit of account and a store of value. Cryptocurrency, just like other resources, has some demand for it, and subsequently a market price. The significant difference is Bitcoin’s intangibility - there is no bank-issued notes or papers - meaning that rather being used in hand-to-hand transactions, Bitcoins are stored and exchanged digitally within a decentralized, peer-to-peer network. The original Bitcoin software developed by Satoshi Nakamoto was released under the MIT license. Most client software, derived or "from scratch", also use open source licensing. Bitcoin is one of the first successful implementations of a distributed crypto-currency, described in part in 1998 by Wei Dai on the cypherpunks mailing list. Building →

Genetically Modified Food or Crops

Genetic Modification Genetic modification refers to techniques used to manipulate the genetic composition of an organism by adding specific useful genes. A gene is a sequence of DNA that contains information that determines a particular characteristic/trait. All organisms have DNA (genes). Genes are located in chromosomes. Genes are units of inheritance that are passed from one generation to the next and provide instructions for development and function of the organism. Crops that are developed through genetic modification are referred to as genetically modified (GM) crops, transgenic crops or genetically engineered (GE) crops. Over the last 30 years, the field of genetic engineering has developed rapidly due to the greater understanding of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as the chemical double helix code from which genes are made. The term genetic engineering is used to describe the process by which the genetic makeup of an organism can be altered using “recombinant DNA technology.” This →

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