Nation at a Glance - Belize

History

Belize was the site of several Mayan city states until their decline at the end of the first millennium A.D. The British and Spanish disputed the region in the 17th and 18th centuries; it formally became the colony of British Honduras in 1854. Territorial disputes between the UK and Guatemala delayed the independence of Belize until 1981. Guatemala refused to recognize the new nation until 1992 and the two countries are involved in an ongoing border dispute. Tourism has become the mainstay of the economy. Current concerns include the country's heavy foreign debt burden, high unemployment, growing involvement in the Mexican and South American drug trade, high crime rates, and one of the highest HIV/AIDS prevalence rates in Central America.

Location: Central America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Guatemala and Mexico

Border Countries: Guatemala 266 km, Mexico 276 km

Total Area: 22,966 sq km Land: 22,806 sq km Water: 160 sq km

Climate: Tropical; very hot and humid; rainy season (May to November); dry season (February to May)

Terrain: Flat, swampy coastal plain; low mountains in south

Natural resources: Arable land potential, timber, fish, hydropower

Land use: Agricultural land: 6.9% arable land 3.3%; permanent crops 1.4%; permanent pasture 2.2% Forest: 60.6% Other: 32.5% (2011 est.)

Ethnic groups: Mestizo 52.9%, Creole 25.9%, Maya 11.3%, Garifuna 6.1%, East Indian 3.9%, Mennonite 3.6%, White 1.2%, Asian 1%, Other 1.2%, Unknown 0.3%

Languages: English 62.9% (official), Spanish 56.6%, Creole 44.6%, Maya 10.5%, German 3.2%, Garifuna 2.9%, Other 1.8%, Unknown 0.3%, None 0.2% (cannot speak)

Religions: Roman Catholic 40.1%, Protestant 31.5% (includes Pentecostal 8.4%, Seventh Day Adventist 5.4%, Anglican 4.7%, Mennonite 3.7%, Baptist 3.6%, Methodist 2.9%, Nazarene 2.8%), Jehovah's Witness 1.7%, Other 10.5% (includes Baha'i, Buddhist, Hindu, Morman, Muslim, Rastafarian), Unknown 0.6%, None 15.5% (2010 est.)

Population: 353,858 (July 2016 est.)

Administrative divisions: 6 districts; Belize, Cayo, Corozal, Orange Walk, Stann Creek, Toledo

Economy: Tourism is the number one foreign exchange earner in this small economy, followed by exports of sugar, bananas, citrus, marine products, and crude oil.The government's expansionary monetary and fiscal policies, initiated in September 1998, led to GDP growth averaging nearly 4% in 1999-2007, however GDP growth slowed to 1% in 2015, and 0% in 2016. Oil discoveries in 2006 bolstered this growth and oil exploration continues, but production has fallen in recent years and future oil revenues remain uncertain and are offset by Belize’s growing imports of refined oil.Although Belize has the third highest per capita income in Central America, the average income figure masks a huge income disparity between rich and poor, and a key government objective remains reducing poverty and inequality with the help of international donors. High unemployment, a growing trade deficit and heavy foreign debt burden continue to be major concerns. Belize faces continued pressure from rising sovereign debt, and a growing trade imbalance.

Agriculture - products: Bananas, cacao, citrus, sugar; fish, cultured shrimp; lumber

Industries: Garment production, food processing, tourism, construction, oil

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