Amendments To The Constitution

Eighty-eighth Amendment Act, 2003

It shall come into force on such date as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint.

After Article 268 of the Constitution, the following article shall be inserted, namely :

"268A. (1) Taxes on services shall be levied by the Government of India and such tax shall be collected and appropriated by the Government of India and the States in the manner provided in clause (2).

(2) The proceeds in any financial year of any such tax levied in accordance with the provisions of clause (1) shall be - (a) collected by the Government of India and the States; (b) appropriated by the Government of India and the States, in accordance with such principles of collection and appropriation as may be formulated by Parliament by law".

In Article 270 of the constitution, in clause(l), for the words and figures "Article 268 and 269", the words, figures and letter "Articles 268, 268A and 269" shall be substituted.

In the Seventh Schedule to the Constitution, in List I-Union List, after entry 9.2B, the following entry shall be inserted, namely : "92C. Taxes on services".

Eighty-seventh Amendment Act, 2003

In Article 81 of the Constitution,in clause (3), in the proviso, in clause (ii), for the figures "1991", the figures "2001" shall be substituted.In Article 82 of the Constitution, in the third proviso, in clause (ii), for the figures "1991", the figures "2001" shall be substituted.

In Article 170 of the Constitution, - (i) in clause (2), in the Explanation, in the proviso, for the figures "1991", the figures "2001" shall be substituted; (ii) in clause (3), in the Explanation, in the third proviso, for the figures "1991", the figures "2001" shall be substituted.

In Article 330 of the Constitution, in the Explanation, in the proviso, for the figures "1991", the figures "2001" shall be substituted.

Eighty-sixth Amendment Act, 2002

The Act deals with insertion of a new article 21A after article 21. The new article 21A deals with Right to Education—"The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years in such manner as the State may, by law, determine".

Substitution of new Article for Article 45. For Article 45 of the Constitution, the following article shall be

substituted, namely, Provision for early childhood care and education to children below the age of six years. Article 45: "The State shall endeavour to provide early childhood care and education for all children until they complete the age of six years."

Article 51A of the Constitution was amended and a new clause (k) was added after clause (j), namely, "(k) who is a parent or guardian to provide opportunities for education to his child or, as the case may be, ward between the age of six and fourteen years."

Eighty-fifth Amendment Act, 2001

This Act amended article 16(4A) of the Constitution to provide for consequential seniority in the case of promotion by virtue of rule of reservation for the Government servants belonging to the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. It also provides retrospective effect from 17th day of June 1995.

Eighty-fourth Amendment Act, 2001

The Act amended provisos to articles 82 and 170(3) of the Constitution to readjust and rationalise the territorial constitutencies in the States, without altering the number of seats allotted to each State in House of People and Legislative Assemblies of the States, including the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes constituencies, on the basis of the population ascertained at the census for the year 1991 so as to remove the imbalance caused due to uneven growth of population/electorate in different constituencies. It is also to refix the number of seats reserved for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes in the House of the People and the Legislative Assemblies of the States on the basis of the population ascertained at the census for the year 1991 so as to remove the imbalance caused due to uneven growth of population/electorate in different constituencies. It is also to refix the number of seats reserved for Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes in the House of the People and the Legislative Assemblies of the States on the basis of the population ascertained at the census for the year 1991.

Eighty-third Amendment Act, 2000

The Act amended Article 243M of the Constitution to provide that no reservation in Panchayats need be made in favour of the Scheduled Castes in Arunachal Pradesh wholly inhabited by tribal population.

Eighty-second Amendment Act, 2000

The amendment provides that nothing in Article 335 shall prevent the State from making any provision in favour of the members of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes for relaxation in qualifying marks in any examination or lowering the standards of evaluation for reservation in matters of promotion to any class or classes of services or posts in connection with affairs of the Union or of a State.

Eighty-first Amendment Act, 2000

By this amendment the unfilled vacancies of a year which were reserved for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes for being filled up in that year in accordance with any provision for reservations made under Article 16 of the Constitution, shall be considered as a separate class of vacancies to be filled up in any succeeding year or years, and such class of vacancies shall not be considered together with the vacancies of the year in which they were filled up for determining the ceiling of fifty per cent reservation against total number of vacancies of that year.

Eightieth Amendment Act, 2000

Based on the recommendations of the Tenth Finance Commission, an alternative scheme for sharing taxes between the Union and the States has been enacted by the Constitution (Eightieth Amendment) Act 2000. Under the new scheme of devolution of revenue between Union and the States, 26 per cent out of gross proceeds of Union taxes and duties is to be assigned to the States in lieu of their existing share in the income-tax, excise duties, special excise duties and grants in lieu of tax on railway passenger fares.

Seventy-ninth Amendment Act, 1999

By this Act the Government has extended the reservations of seats for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes as well as for the Anglo-Indians in the House of the People and in the Legislative Assemblies of the States for another ten years.

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