Amendments To The Constitution

Indian Constitution

Ninety Eight Amendment Act, 2012

The following Act of Parliament received the assent of the President on the 1st January, 2013. Be it enacted by Parliament in the Sixty third year of the Republic of India as follows:
(i)(a)This Act may be called the Constitution (Ninety eight Amendment) Act, 2012; (b) It shall come into force on such date as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint.

The President may, by order made with respect to the State of Karnataka, provide for any special responsibility of the Governor for establishment of a separate development board for Hyderabad- Karnataka region with the provision that a report on the working of the board will be placed each year before the State Legislative Assembly. Equitable allocation of funds for developmental expenditure, opportunities and facilities for the people belonging to the said region, in matter of public employment, education and vocational training, subject to the requirements of the State as a whole.

Ninety Seventh Amendment Act, 2011

The following Act of Parliament received the assent of the President on the 12th January 2012. Be it enacted by Parliament in the sixty second Year of the Republic of India as follows:
(i) (a)This Act may be called the Constitution (Ninety Seventh Amendment) Act, 2011 (b) It shall come into force on such date as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint.
(ii) In Part III of the Constitution, in article 19, in clause(I), in sub-clause(c), after the words "or unions", the words "or co-operative societies" shall be inserted.
(iii) In Part IV of the Constitution, after article 43A, the following article shall be inserted namely : "43B. The State shall endeavour to promote voluntary formation, autonomous functioning, democratic control and professional management of co-operative societies."

Ninety Sixth Amendment Act, 2011

The following Act of Parliament received the assent of the President on the 23rd September, 2011. Be it enacted by Parliament in the Sixty second Year of the Republic of India as follows:
(i) This Act may be called the Constitution Ninety Sixth Amendment Act, 2011.
(ii) In the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution, in entry 15, for the word "Oriya", the word "Odia" shall be substituted.

Ninety Fifth Amendment Act, 2009

States by resolutions to that effect, received the assent of the President on the 18th January, 2010. Be it enacted by Parliament in the Sixtieth Year of the Republic of India as follows: (i) This Act may be called the Constitution (Ninety Fifth Amendment) Act, 2009, (ii) It shall come into force on the 25th day of January, 2010. (iii)In article 334 of the Constitution, for the words "sixty years", the words "seventy years" shall be substituted.

Ninty Four Amendment Act, 2006

The following Act of Parliament received the assent of the President on the 12th June 2006. In Article 164 of the Constitution, in Clause (I), in the proviso, for the word "Bihar", the words "Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand" shall be substituted.

Ninety-third amendment Act, 2006

Greater access to higher education includingprofessional education, is of great importance to a large number of students belonging to the ScheduledCastes, the Scheduled Tribes and other socially and educationally backward classes of citizens. Thereservation of seats for the Scheduled Castes, the Scheduled Tribes and the Other Backward Classes ofcitizens in admission to educational institution is derived from the provisions of clause (4) of articles 15of the constitution. At present, the number of seats available in aided or State maintained institutions,particularly in respect of professional education, is limited, in comparison to those in private unaidedinstitutions.

Clause (i) of article 30 of the Constitution provides the right to all minorities to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice. It is essential that the rights available to minorities are protected in regard to institutions established and administered by them. Accordingly, institutions declared by the State to be minority institutions under clause (1) of article 30 are excluded from the operation of this enactment.

To promote the educational advancement of the socially and educationally backward classes of citizens, i.e., the Other Backward Classes or of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes in matters of admission of students belonging to these categories in unaided educational institutions, other than the minority educational institutions referred to in clause (1) of article 30, the provisions of article 15 were amplified. The new clause (5) of said article 15 shall enable the Parliament as well as the State Legislatures to make appropriate laws for the above mentioned purpose.

Ninety-second Amendment Act, 2003

In the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution,—(a) existing entry 3 shall be re-numbered as entry 5, and before entry 5 as so re-numbered, the following entries shall be inserted, namely:

"3. Bodo;

4. Dogri".

(b) existing 4 to 7 shall respectively be re-numbered as entries 6 to 9; (c) existing entry 8 shall be re-numbered as entry 11 and before entry 11 as so renumbered, the following entry shall be inserted, namely:"10. Maithili".

(d)existing entries 9 to 14 shall respectively be re-numbered as entries 12 to 17;

(e)existing entry 15 shall be re-numbered as entry 19 and before entry 19 as so re-numbered, the following entry shall be inserted, namely :

"18. Santhali".

(f)existing entries 16 to 18 shall respectively be re-numbered as entries 20 to 22.

Ninety-first Amendment, Act, 2003

In Article 75 of the Constitution, after clause (1), the following clauses shall be inserted, namely :

"(1A) The total number of Ministers, including the Prime Minister, in the Council of Ministers shall not exceed fifteen per cent of the total number of members of the House of the People.

(IB) A member of either House of Parliament belonging to any political party who is disqualified for being a member of that House under paragraph 2 of the Tenth Schedule shall also be disqualified to be appointed as a Minister under clause (1) for duration of the period commencing from the date of his disqualification till the date on which the term of his office as such member would expire or where he contests any election to either House of Parliament before the expiry of such period, till the date on which he is declared elected, whichever is earlier"

In Article 164 of the Constitution, after clause (i), the following clauses shall be inserted, namely:

"(1 A) the total number of Ministers, including the Chief Minister, in the Council of Ministers in a State sail not exceed fifteen per cent of the total number of members of the Legislative Assembly of that State :

Provided that the number of Ministers, including the Chief Minister, in a State shall not be less than twelve:

Provided further that where the total number of Ministers, including the Chief Minister, in the Council of Ministers in any State at the commencement of the Constitution (Ninety-first Amendment) Act, 2003 exceeds the said fifteen per cent or the number specified in the first proviso, as the case may be, then, the total number of Ministers in that State shall be brought in conformity with the provisions of this clause within six months from such date as the President may by public notification appoint.

(IB) A member of the Legislative Assembly of a State or either House of the Legislature of a State having Legislative Council belonging to any political party who is disqualified for being a member of that House under paragraph 2 of the Tenth Schedule shall also be disqualified to be appointed as a Minister under clause (1) for duration of the period commencing from the date of his disqualification till the date on which the term of his office as such member would expire or where he contests any election to the Legislative Assembly of a State or either House of the Legislature of a State having Legislative Council, as the case may be, before the expiry of such period, till the date on which he is declared elected, whichever is earlier"

After Article 361A of the Constitution, the following article shall be inserted, namely :

316B. A member of a House belonging to any political party who is disqualified for being a member of the House under paragraph 2 of the Tenth Schedule shall also be disqualified to hold any remunerative political post for duration of the period commencing from the date of his disqualification till the date on which the term of his office as such member would expire or till the date on which he contests an election to a House and is declared elected, whichever is earlier.

Explanation : For the purposes of this Article,—

(a)the expression "House" has the meaning assigned to it in clause (a) of paragraph 1 of the Tenth Schedule :

(b)the expression "remunerative political post" means any office—(i) under the Government of India or the Government of a State where the salary or remuneration for such office is paid out of the public revenue of the Government of India or the Government of the State, as the case may be, or (ii) under a body, whether incorporated or not, which is wholly or partially owned by the Government of India or the Government of a State and the salary or remuneration for such office is paid by such body, except where such salary or remuneration paid is compensatory in nature'.

In the Tenth Schedule to the Constitution,—(a) in paragraph, 1, in clause (b), the words and figure "paragraph 3 or, as the case may be," shall be omitted; (b) in paragraph 2, in sub-paragraph (1), for the words and figures "paragraphs 3, 4 and 5", the words and figures "paragraphs 4 and 5" shall be substituted; (c) paragraph 3 shall be omitted.

Ninetieth Amendment Act, 2003

-ln Article 332 of the Constitution, in clause (6), the following proviso shall be inserted, namely :

"Provided that for elections to the Legislative Assembly of the State of Assam, the representation of the Scheduled Tribes and non-Scheduled Tribes in the constituencies included in the Bodoland Territorial Areas District, so notified, and existing prior to the constitution of the Bodoland Territorial Areas District, shall be maintained".

Eighty-ninth Amendment) Act, 2003

lt shall come into force on such date as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint.

In Article 338 of the Constitution, - (a) for the marginal heading, the following marginal heading shall be substituted, namely :

"National Commission for : Scheduled Castes";

(b)for clauses (1) and (2), the following clauses shall be substituted, namely:

"(1) There shall be a Commission for the Scheduled Castes to be known as the National Commission for the Scheduled Castes.

(2) Subject to the provisions of any law made in this behalf by Parliament, the Commission shall consist of a Chairperson, Vice-Chairperson and three other Members and the conditions of service and tenure of office of the Chairperson, Vice-Chairperson and other Members so appointed shall be such as the President may by rule determine";

(c)in clauses (5), (9) and (10), the words "and Scheduled Tribes", wherever they occur, shall be omitted.After Article 338 of the Constitution, the following article shall be inserted, namely:

"338A. (1) There shall be a Commission for the Scheduled Tribes to be known as the National Commission for the Scheduled Tribes.

(2)Subject to the provisions of any law made in this behalf by Parliament, the Commission shall consist of a Chairperson, Vice-Chairperson and three other Members and the conditions of service and tenure of office of the Chairperson, Vice-Chairperson and other Members so appointed shall be such as the President may by rule determine.

(3)The Chairperson, Vice-Chairperson and other Members of the Commission shall be appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal.

(4)The Commission shall have the power to regulate its own procedure.

(5)It shall be the duty of the Commission - (a) to investigate and monitor all matters relating to the safeguards provided for the Scheduled Tribes under this Constitution or under any other law for the time being in force or under any order of the Government and to evaluate the working of such safeguards; (b) to inquire into specific complaints with respect to the deprivation of rights and safeguards of the Scheduled Tribes; (c) to participate and advise on the planning process of socio-economic development of the Scheduled Tribes and to evaluate the progress of their development under the Union and any State; (d) to present to the President, annually and at such other times as the Commission may deem fit, reports upon the working of those safeguards; (e) to make in such reports recommendations as to the measures that should be taken by the Union or any State for the effective implementation of those safeguards and other measures for the protection, welfare and socio-economic development of the Scheduled Tribes; and (f) to discharge such other functions in relation to the protection, welfare and development and advancement of the Scheduled Tribes as the President may, subject to the provisions of any law made by Parliament, by rule specify.

(6)The President shall cause all such reports to be laid before each House of Parliament along with a memorandum explaining the action taken or proposed to be taken on the recommendations relating to the Union and the reasons for the non-acceptance, if any, of any of such recommendations.

(7)Where any such report, or any part thereof, relates to any matter with which any State Government is concerned, a copy of such report shall be forwarded to the Governor of the State who shall cause it to be laid before the Legislature of the State along with a memorandum explaining the action taken or proposed to be taken on the recommendations relating to the State and reasons for the non-acceptance, if any, of any of such recommendations.

(8)The Commission shall, while investigating any matter referred to in sub-clause(a) or inquiring into any complaint referred to in sub-clause (b) of clause (5), have all the powers of a civil court trying a suit and in particular in respect of the following matters, namely:

(a) summoning and enforcing the attendance of any person from any part of India and examining him on oath; (b) requiring the discovery and production of any document; (c) receiving evidence on affidavits; (d) requisitioning any public record or copy thereof from any court or office; (e) issuing commissions for the examination of witnesses and documents; (f) any other matter which the President may, by rule, determine.

(9)The Union and every State Government shall consult the Commission on all major policy matters affecting Scheduled Tribes". 

Career Scope in Print Media

Print media are lightweight, portable, disposable publications printed on paper and circulated as physical copies in forms we call books, newspapers, magazines and newsletters. They hold informative and entertaining content that is of general or special interest. They are published either once or daily, weekly, biweekly, monthly, bimonthly or quarterly. Print Media is the oldest form of media. But even today it is growing from strength to strength. Around 4000 small, medium and large newspapers and magazines across the county are registered with the Registrar of Newspapers every year. This indicates that it is a growing sector where employment opportunities are increasing with each passing day. Most of the young aspirants who want to enter the print media prefer reporting, but newspapers and magazines also seek young talent as photographers, artists, editors, computer experts, librarians, and cartoonists. Students who have writing ability, graphics or photo skills, curiosity and deter →

2018 Filmfare Awards Winner

63rd Filmfare Awards ceremony, presented by the Filmfare Magazine, honored the best Hindi language Indian films of 2017. The ceremony was held on 20 January 2018 at the NSCI Dome in Worli, Mumbai. Winner of the 63rd Jio Filmfare Awards 2018 Best Film Hindi Medium Critics' Award for Best Film Newton Best Actor In A Leading Role (Female) Vidya Balan for Tumhari Sulu Best Actor In A Leading Role (Male) Irrfan Khan for Hindi Medium Critics' Award for Best Actor (Male) Rajkummar Rao for Trapped Critics' Award for Best Actor (Female) Zaira Wasim for Secret Superstar Best Director Ashwiny Iyer Tiwari for Bareilly Ki Barfi Best Debut Director Konkona Sensharma for A Death in the Gunj Best Actor In A Supporting Role (Male) Rajkummar Rao for Bareilly Ki Barfi Best Actor in a Supporting Role (Female) Meher Vij for Secret Superstar Best Dialogue Hitesh Kewalya for Shubh Mangal Saavdhan Best Screenplay Shubhashish Bhutiani for Mukti Bhavan Best Original Story Amit Masurka →

What is Bitcoin?

In 2009, an unknown programmer by the name of Satoshi Nakamoto put forward a whitepaper that proposed a creation of new form of digital currency - cryptocurrency. Cryptocurrency functions the same way as regular currencies do in that its used as a means of exchange, unit of account and a store of value. Cryptocurrency, just like other resources, has some demand for it, and subsequently a market price. The significant difference is Bitcoin’s intangibility - there is no bank-issued notes or papers - meaning that rather being used in hand-to-hand transactions, Bitcoins are stored and exchanged digitally within a decentralized, peer-to-peer network. The original Bitcoin software developed by Satoshi Nakamoto was released under the MIT license. Most client software, derived or "from scratch", also use open source licensing. Bitcoin is one of the first successful implementations of a distributed crypto-currency, described in part in 1998 by Wei Dai on the cypherpunks mailing list. Building →

Genetically Modified Food or Crops

Genetic Modification Genetic modification refers to techniques used to manipulate the genetic composition of an organism by adding specific useful genes. A gene is a sequence of DNA that contains information that determines a particular characteristic/trait. All organisms have DNA (genes). Genes are located in chromosomes. Genes are units of inheritance that are passed from one generation to the next and provide instructions for development and function of the organism. Crops that are developed through genetic modification are referred to as genetically modified (GM) crops, transgenic crops or genetically engineered (GE) crops. Over the last 30 years, the field of genetic engineering has developed rapidly due to the greater understanding of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as the chemical double helix code from which genes are made. The term genetic engineering is used to describe the process by which the genetic makeup of an organism can be altered using “recombinant DNA technology.” This →

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