History Of Genetically Modified Crops In India


In the realm of agriculture, India has been a pioneer in adopting innovative practices to address the ever-growing demand for food. One such innovation that has sparked considerable interest and controversy is the adoption of genetically modified (GM) crops. This article delves into the intricate history of genetically modified crops in India, exploring the journey from inception to the present day.

Early Beginnings: The Advent of GM Crops

The Green Revolution: A Turning Point

The history of GM crops in India can be traced back to the Green Revolution of the 1960s and 70s. During this period, India faced a severe food crisis, prompting the government to seek solutions to boost agricultural productivity. High-yielding varieties of crops were introduced, laying the foundation for future biotechnological advancements.

Bt Cotton: The First GM Crop

In 2002, India made its maiden entry into the realm of GM crops with the commercial cultivation of Bt cotton. Developed by Mahyco Monsanto Biotech (India) Pvt. Ltd., this genetically modified cotton variety incorporated a protein from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to resist the bollworm pest. Bt cotton quickly gained popularity among Indian farmers due to its improved pest resistance and higher yields.

Controversies and Regulatory Framework

Bt Brinjal: A Controversial Chapter

The introduction of Bt brinjal in 2009 marked a significant moment in the history of GM crops in India. However, this move was met with strong opposition from environmental activists and concerned citizens, leading to a moratorium on its cultivation. The Bt brinjal debate raised important questions about the safety and environmental impact of GM crops.

Regulatory Framework: Balancing Innovation and Safety

To address the concerns surrounding GM crops, India established the Genetic Engineering Approval Committee (GEAC) to regulate the research, development, and commercial release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The introduction of rigorous safety assessments and protocols aimed to strike a balance between innovation and environmental protection.

Success Stories: GM Crops in Indian Agriculture

Bt Cotton's Impact

Despite the controversies, Bt cotton emerged as a success story in Indian agriculture. The adoption of Bt cotton led to increased yields, reduced pesticide use, and improved livelihoods for many cotton farmers. This success paved the way for further exploration of GM crops in the country.

The Rise of GM Mustard

In recent years, GM mustard has gained attention as another potential game-changer in Indian agriculture. Developed to enhance mustard seed yields, this genetically modified variety is currently under evaluation for commercial release. Its approval could potentially boost oilseed production and reduce India's dependence on imports.

Challenges and Future Prospects

Coexistence with Non-GM Crops

One of the ongoing challenges in India's journey with GM crops is ensuring the coexistence of GM and non-GM crops. Preventing cross-pollination and maintaining the purity of traditional crops is crucial to preserving biodiversity and farmers' choices.

Public Awareness and Acceptance

Public awareness and acceptance of GM crops remain a critical factor in shaping the future of agriculture in India. Educating farmers and consumers about the benefits and risks of GM crops is essential for informed decision-making.


The history of genetically modified crops in India is a story of innovation, controversy, and adaptation. From the introduction of Bt cotton to ongoing research on GM mustard, India's agricultural landscape continues to evolve. As the nation grapples with the challenges and opportunities presented by GM crops, it is clear that the debate surrounding their use will persist.


Q. Are GM crops safe for consumption?
Genetically modified crops approved for cultivation in India undergo rigorous safety assessments to ensure they are safe for both humans and the environment.

Q. What are the benefits of GM crops?
GM crops can offer benefits such as increased yields, reduced pesticide use, and improved resistance to pests and diseases.

Q. Why is there opposition to GM crops in India?
Opposition to GM crops in India is rooted in concerns about their environmental impact, potential health risks, and the influence of multinational corporations.

Q. How does India regulate GM crops?
India regulates GM crops through the Genetic Engineering Approval Committee (GEAC), which oversees research, development, and commercial release.

Q. What is the future of GM crops in India?
The future of GM crops in India depends on factors like public acceptance, regulatory decisions, and technological advancements, with the potential to address food security and sustainability.

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