Indian State And Union Territory - Rajasthan

Chief Minister: Shri Ashok Gehlot
Governor/Administrator:
Shri Kalyan Singh
Area: 3,42,239 sq. km sq. km
Capital: Jaipur
Population: 68621012
Male Population: 35620086
Female Population: 33000926
Total Literacy(%): 67.06
Male Literacy(%): 80.51
Female Literacy(%): 52.66
Sex Ratio: 926
No of District: 33
Principal Languages: Hindi
Other Languages: Hindi and Rajasthani
Rajasthan

History and Geography

Rajasthan, the largest State in India area-wise prior to Independence was known as Rajputana. The Rajputs, a martial community, ruled over this area for centuries.The history of Rajasthan dates back to the pre-historic times. Around 3,000 andI, 000 BC, it had a culture akin to that of the Indus Valley civilisation. It were the Chauhans who dominated Rajput affairs from seventh century and by 12th century they had become an imperial power. After the Chauhans, the Guhilots of Mewar who controlled the destiny of the warring tribes. Besides Mewar, the other historically prominent States were Marwar, Jaipur, Bundi, Kota, Bharatpur and Alwar. Other States were only offshoots of these. All these states accepted the British Treaty of Subordinate Alliance in 1818 protecting the interests of the princes. This naturally left the people discontented.

After the revolt of 1857, the people united themselves under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi to contribute to the freedom movement. With the introduction of provincial autonomy in 1935 in British India, an agitation for civil liberties and political rights became stronger in Rajasthan. The process of uniting scattered States commenced from 1948 to 1956 when the States Reorganisation Act was promulgated. First came Matsya Union (1948) consisting of a fraction of States, then, slowly and gradually other States merged with this Union. By 1949, Major States like Bikaner, Jaipur, Jodhpur and Jaisalmer joined this Union making it the United State of Greater Rajasthan. Ultimately in 1958, the present State of Rajasthan formally came into being, with Ajmer state, the Abu Road Taluka and Sunel Tappa joining it.The entire western flank of the State borders with Pakistan, while Punjab in North Haryana in north east, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh in south east and Gujarat in south west of the state.


Agriculture

Total cultivable area in the State was 257.69 lakh hectare and food grain production is 238.95 lakh tonnes in the year 2010-11. Total corp area in the State is 242.98 lakh hectares and estimated food grain production is 229.19 lakh tonnes in the year 2010-II.Principal crops cultivated in the State are rice, barley, jowar, millet, maize, gram,wheat, oilseeds, pulses and cotton. Cultivation of vegetable and citrus fruits such as orange and malta has also picked up over last few years. Red chillies, mustard,cumin seeds, methi and hing are commercial crops of the State.

Industry and Minerals

Endowed with a rich culture, Rajasthan is also rich in minerals and is fast emerging on the industrial scenario of the country. Some of the important Central undertakings are Hindustan Zinc Smelter Plant at Devari (Udaipur), Chanderia (Chittorgarh), Hindustan Copper Plant at Khetri Nagar (Jhunjhunu), Hindustan Salt Ltd. Sambhar (Jaipur), HMT Ltd. Ajmer, and Precision Instrument Factory at Kota. Small-scale industrial units numbering 3.64 lakh with a capital investment of Rs.15221.85 crore provides employment potential to about 15.89 lakh persons in the State as on March 2012. Major industries are textiles and woolens, engineering goods, Electronic items, Automobile, Food Processing, Gems and Jewellery, Cement, Marble slabs and tiles, glass, Oxygen, Zinc, fertilizers, railway wagons, ball bearings, water and electricity meters, sulphuric acid, handicraft items, television sets, synthetic yarn, Ceramic, Insulator, Stainless steel, Re-rolling, Steel Foundry and insulating bricks. Besides,precious and semi-precious stones, caustic soda, calcium carbide, nylon and tyres, etc. are other important industrial.

79 verities of minerals found in the state, out of these, state produces 58 varieties of minerals. 100% production of major mineral like Zinc, Wollastonite, Jasper, Garnet (Gem), comes from state. State has maximum varieties of miner minerals. State also producing the Oil and Natural Gas from Mangala, Vijiya,Bayatu etc. areas of Barmer district. In addition to this the major production of mineral like calcite, Soapstone, Lead Ore, Asbestos, Rock Phosphate, Felspar, Silver Ore, Marble, Sandstone etc.l comes from the state.

Irrigation and Power

By the end of March 2012 irrigation potential of 37.68 lakh hectare was created in the state through various major, medium and minor irrigation projects and irrigation potential of 15.93 lakh hectares from Indira Gandhi Nahar Project (in first phase 5.46 lakh hectares and in second phase 10.47 lakh hectares).

The installed power capacity in the State has become 10344.11 MW upto June, 2012 of which 4097.35 MW is produced from State owned projects, 972.94 MW from collaboration projects, 2290.47 MW from the allocation from Central power generating stations, 2367.35 Mw from Wind, Solar and Biomass Projects and 616.00 MW from Private Sector Projects.

MAHATMA GANDHI NATIONAL RURAL EMPLOYMENT GUARANTEE SCHEME

In first phase Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme was initiated on 2.2.06 by Government of India in 6 districts (Banswara, Dungarpur, Jhalawar, Karuoli, Sirohi and Udaipur) of the State. In second phase this scheme was initiated on 2.5.07 in other 6 districts (Barmer, Chittorgarh, Jaisalmer, Jalore, Sawai Madhopur and Tonk) of the State. In third phase this scheme was initiated on 1.4.08 in rest districts of the State.

During the financial year 2011-12 Rs. 3130.57 crores has been spend for employed to 48.57 lakh families. And 2046.62 lakh mandays have been created in the scheme.

Transport

Roads: The total length of roads was 1,89,402 km as in March, 2012.
Railways: Jodhpur, Jaipur, Bikaner, Sawai Madhopur, Kota, Bharatpur and Udaipur are main Railway junctions of State. Total length of Railway line is 5780.12 Km. (4465.12 km broad gaze, 1228.24 km. meter gaze and 86.76 km. narrow gaze) in the State as on March, 2010.

Aviation: All eminent cities are connected with Jaipur airport under domestic air services in which Delhi, Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Kolkata, Chennai, Hyderabad, Bangaluru, Pune and Guwahati are important domestic air services. International air services are also available for Dubai, Mascutt and Sharjah from Jaipur air port.

Festivals

Rajasthan is a land of festivals and fairs, besides national festivals of Holi, Deepawali, Vijayadashmi, Christmas, etc., auspices days related to deities, saintly figures, folk heroes and heroines are celebrated. Important fairs are Teej, Gangaur (Jaipur), annual Urs of Ajmer Sharif and Galiakot, tribal Kumbh of Beneshwar (Dungarpur), Mahaveer fair at Shrimahavirji in Karoli, Ramdeora fair (Jaisalmer), Jambheswar fair (Nokha-Bikaner), Kartik Poornima and Cattle Fair (Pushkar-Ajmer) and Khatu Shyamji Fair (Khatu-Sikar) etc.

Tourist Centres

Jaipur, Jodhpur, Udaipur, Bikaner, Mount Abu (Sirohi), Ajmer, Jaisalmer, Pali, Bundi, Kota, Jhalawar, Shekhawati and Chittorgarh. Ranthambhore National Park (Tiger Reserve) in Sawai Madhopur, Sariska Tiger Sanctuary in Alwar, Keoladeo National Park at Bharatpur, are important places of tourists interests in the State.

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