Indian State And Union Territory - Chhattisgarh

Chief Minister: Mr. Bhupesh Baghel
Governor: Smt. Anandiben Patel
Area: 1,36,034 sq. km
Capital: Raipur
Population: 25540196
Male Population: 12827915
Female Population: 12712281
Total Literacy(%): 71.04
Male Literacy(%): 81.45
Female Literacy(%): 60.59
Sex Ratio: 991
No of District: 18
Principal Languages: Hindi
Other Languages: Hindi
Chhattisgarh

History and Geography

Chhattisgarh, carved out of Madhya Pradesh came into being on 1 November 2000 as the 26th State of the Union. It fulfils the long-cherished demand of the people. In ancient times the region was known as Dakshin-KausaL This finds mention in Ramayana and Mahabharata also. Between the sixth and twelfth centuries Sarabhpurias, Panduavanshi, Somvanshi, Kalchuri and Nagvanshi rulers dominated this region. Kalchuris ruled in Chhattisgarh from 980 to 1791 AD. With the advent of the British in 1845, Raipur gained prominence instead of capital Ratanpur. In 1904 Sambalpur was transferred to Orissa and estates of Sarguja were transferred from Bengal to Chhattisgarh.

Chhattisgarh is bounded by southern Jharkhand and Orissa in the east, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra in the west, Uttar Pradesh and western Jharkhand in the north and Andhra Pradesh in the south. Areawise Chhattisgarh is the ninth largest state and population-wise it is seventeenth populous state of the nation.

Agriculture

Total Geographical area of Chhattisgarh State is 137.90 lake ha out of which arable land is about 47.70 lakh ha. In the state, area under kharif crop is around 47.60 lakh a and rabi crop is 16.61 lak ha. At present due to various irrigation sources, area in kharif season is 13.55 lakh ha which is about 29% of arable area.

In Chhattisgarh, out of 34.61 lakh farms family, 77% belongs to small and marginal farmers. Here 33% of farm families belong to Schedule Tribe and 12% belongs to Schedule Caste. The agro climate zone of Chhattisgarh are three viz. Northern Hill Zone, Chhattisgarh Plain and Plateau of Baster. The average annual rainfall of this area is about 1307.3 mm.

The main kharif crop of this region is paddy which is about 76% of total kharif crops. Apart from it other main crops grown here are Maize, Soybean, Groundnut, Urdbean and Pigeon pea. Similarly main rabi crops growth here are Wheat, Gram Latyrus, Mustard and Linseed.

Industry

The economy of Chhattisgarh is largely natural resource driven and it leverages the state's rich mineral resources. The key sectors wThere Chhattisgarh has a competitive advantage include cement, mining, steel, aluminium and power. One of the most of mineral-rich states in India, Chhattisgarh provides a lucrative opportunity for cement production at the most competitive prices. Along with vast natural resources, industries also find ample skilled human resources.

Information Technology

E-Governance in Chhattisgarh is oriented towards ensuring people, access to government; this makes the government even more responsive and transparent. Chips was setup with a high powered governing council under the Chief Minister's chairpersonship, to act as a prime mover for IT and Biotechnology in the state. All citizen services of e-governance are under one umbrella project called CHOICE. Chhattisgarh got the UNDP Award 2007 for its Human Development Report, using Information technology for the betterment of citizens.

Mineral Resources

Chhattisgarh has the perfect geological set up to host a number of economically crucial minerals. Large deposits of coal, iron ore, limestone, bauxite and dolomite are found in various parts of the state. Districts of North Chhattisgarh such as Surguja, Raigarh, Koriya and Bilaspur are known for huge coal deposits. The state has 50846 million tonnes reserve in coal as on 1.4.2012 in 12 coal fields. In 2010-11 the state produced 113.8 million tonnes of coal.

Mineral activities contribute approximately 13.63% to the state G.S.D.R against the national figure of 2.5%.

Irrigation and Power

When the state came into being, the total irrigation capacity was 13.28 lakh hectares which has 23 per cent of total sown area which has now increased to 18.44 lakh hectares which is 33.15 percent of total down area.

Total 8 Major 33 Medium and 2355 Minor irrigation project have been completed till March 2012.

Major completed projects are Mahandai Reservoir project, Hasdeo Bango Project, Tandula, Kodar, Jonk D/S, Kharung, Maniyari Tank and Pairy (Sikasar) project, Jonk Project, Kharang project, Mariyani project.

The capacity of State Electricity Production Company is 1924.70 MW of which 1786 MW in thermal and 138.7 MW yodel electricity.

In Chhattisgarh 97.29% of villages and 69.27% majrotola (hamlet) are electrified. As in 2001 73369 agriculture pump-set were energized and this figure has increased to 2,89,090 as on 31-07-2012 per capita electricity consumption has increased from 317 unit in 2001 to 1588 (provisional) in March 2012.

More than 73 MOUs signed for establishment of power plants with anticipated power production of 660000 MW.

Transport

Roads: The total length of the roads in the State under PWD is 31803 kms. The length of National Highway is 2226 kms; State highways 5240 kms; 10,539.80 kms; main district roads; and 13798 kms other district and rural roads. The length of roads in Chhattisgarh has increased from 17.75 kms to 21.40 kms per 100 kms.

9,718 kms of roads have been constructed under Pradan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojna. To connect interior areas of State, not covered under PMGSY, State Government has started Mukhya Mantri Gram Sada Yojna and 4000 kms of Roads worth ? 2000 crores will be constructed within two years.

Railways: Raipur, Bilaspur, Durg, Rajnandgaon, Raigarh and Korba are important railway stations.

Airlines: Raipur is connected with New Delhi, Nagpur, Mumbai and Bhubaneswar by daily flights. Bilaspur, Bhilai, Raigarh, Jagdalpur, Ambikapur, Korba, Jashpurnagar and Rajnandgaon are having airstrips.

Festivals

Chhattisgarh is famous for its festivals. Pola, Nawakhai, Dussehara, Deepawali, Holi, Govardhan Pooja are celebrated with gaiety and festivity.

Tourist Centres

Chhattisgarh situated in the heart of India, is endowed with a rich cultural heritage and attractive natural diversity. The State is full of ancient monuments, rare wildlife species, carved temples, Buddhist sites, palaces, water falls, caves, rock paintings and geographical formations.

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