The major programmes at VSSC include launch vehicle projects of Polar Satellite Launch Vehicles (PSLV), Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicles (GSLV Mark II and Mark III), Rohini Sounding Rockets, Space-capsule Recovery Experiments, Reusable Launch Vehicles and Air Breathing Propulsion for Advanced Reusable Launch Vehicles.
ISAC is functionally organised into five major areas: mechanical systems area including structures, thermal systems and spacecraft mechanisms;digital and communications area including digital systems and communication systems;integration and power area comprising spacecraft checkout, systems integration and power systems;controls and mission area consisting of control system, mission development and computer and information;and facilities.
SDSC SHAR, with two launch pads is the main launch centre of ISRO located at 100 km north of Chennai. SDSC SHAR has the necessary infrastructure for launching satellite into low earth orbit, polar orbit and geostationary transfer orbit. The launch complexes provide complete support for vehicle assembly, fuelling, checkout and launch operations. Apart form these, it has facilities for launching sounding rockets meant for studying the earth’s atmosphere.
LPSC Valiamala is the Headquarters and the centre is entrusted with the responsibility of research and development of Earth Storable and Cryogenic propulsion and delivers Engines, stages, associated control systems and components for Launch Vehicle and Spacecrafts.
Space Applications Centre (SAC) is one of the major centres of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). It is a unique centre dealing with a wide variety of disciplines comprising design and development of payloads, societal applications, capacity building and space sciences, thereby creating a synergy of technology, science and applications. The Centre is responsible for the development, realisation and qualification of communication, navigation, earth & planetaryobservation, meteorological payloads and related data processing and ground systems.
NRSC at Hyderabad has been converted into a full-fledged centres of ISRO since September 1, 2008. Earlier, NRSC was an autonomous body called National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA) under Department of Space (DOS). The Centre is responsible for remote sensing satellite data acquisition and processing, data dissemination, aerial remote sensing and decision support for disaster management.
Currently NRSC is supplying data from CartoSat - 1, 2, 2A & 2B, ResourceSat - 1 & 2, OceanSat, TES, IRS - 1D and IMS - 1 to the users. The users are ever growing and utilized about 67,000 data products during 2010-11 in comparison with that of 50,000 during 2009-10.
ISTRAC is responsible for providing Space Operation services that include spacecraft control, TTC support services and other related projects and services, for the launch vehicle and low earth orbiting spacecraft and deep space missions of ISRO and other space agencies around the world. Development of RADAR systems for tracking & atmospheric applications and Establishment of Ground Segment Network for Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System of ISRO are the additional responsibilities of ISTRAC.
MCF at Hassan in Karnataka and Bhopal in Madhya Pradesh monitors and controls all the geo-stationary satellites of ISRO. MCF carries out operations related to initial orbit raising of satellites, in-orbit payload testing, and on-orbit operations throughout the life of these satellites. The operations involve continuous tracking, telemetry and commanding, special operations like eclipse management, station-keeping manoeuvres and recovery in case of contingencies.
ISRO Inertial Systems Unit (IISU) at Thiruvananthapuram has been the center of excellence in the area of inertial systems for launch vehicles and spacecrafts. IISU carries out research and development in the area of inertial sensors & systems and allied satellite elements. It has facilities for precision fabrication, assembly, clean room and integration and testing. This unit has the total capability to design, engineer, develop, qualify and deliver inertial systems for the entire Indian Space programme.
Laboratory for Electro Optics Systems is engaged in design, development and production of Electro-Optic sensors and camera optics for satellites and launch vehicles. The sensors include star trackers, earth sensors, sun sensors & processing electronics. Optics Systems include both reflective and refractive optics for remote sensing and meteorological payloads. Other optical elements developed by LEOS for in-house use include optics for star sensor, optics for Lunar Laser Ranging Instrument (LLRI), optical masks for sun sensors, optical filters and encoders.
LEOS is actively involved in the development of new technologies for present / future satellites. This includes development active pixel sensor star tracker, Charge Coupled Device (CCD) based star tracker, Fiber Optics Gyro, Optical inter satellite link, high resolution camera optics, optical coatings and MEMS devices (magnetometer, accelerometer etc.). LEOS is situated at Peenya Industrial Estate, Bangalore where the first Indian Satellite Aryabhata was fabricated in 1975.
Development and Educational Communication Unit (DECU) is involved in the system definition, planning, implementation and socio-economic research/evaluation of satellite-based societal applications.
The Major Programs, at present, of DECU – to promote the satellite-based communication systems to support development, education & training – include:
Five Regional Remote Sensing Service Centres (RRSSCs) established under National Natural Resources Management System (NNRMS) by DOS at Bangalore, Jodhpur, Kharagpur (recently relocated to Kolkata), Dehradun and Nagpur have been integrated with NRSC and renamed as Regional Remote Sensing Centres (RRSCs) South, West, East, North and Central respectively on December 2, 2009.
RRSCs support various remote sensing tasks specific to their regions as well as at the national level. RRSCs are carrying out application projects encompassing all the fields of natural resources like agriculture and soils, water resources, forestry, oceanography, geology, environment and urban planning.
Apart from executing application projects, RRSCs are involved in software development, customisation and packaging specific to user requirements and conducting regular training programmes for users in Remote Sensing Application, digital techniques, GIS and theme based applications.
The Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (IIST), a ‘Deemed to be University’ under Section 3 of the UGC Act 1956, established by the Department of Space, Government of India, offers undergraduate (Avionics, Aerospace Engineering and Physical Sciences), post-graduate and doctoral programmes in niche areas of space science, technology and applications. The institute is committed to a culture of excellence of the highest order in teaching, scholarship and research. IIST fosters state-of-the-art research and development in space studies and creates a think-tank to explore new directions for the Indian space programme.
The Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS), unit of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), Department of Space, Government of India is a premier education, training and research institute for capacity building in the field of Remote Sensing, Geo-information, positioning & navigation technology and its applications. Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS), formerly known as Indian Photo-Interpretation Institute (IPI), was set up in 1966 under the aegis of the Survey of India to provide comprehensive training with hands on experience of the emerging technology. Institute was merged with National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA) in July 1976, and in the year 1980, NRSA came under the umbrella of Department of Space (Government of India). Since September 1, 2008, IIRS as part of NRSC was inducted under the ISRO umbrella, and presently IIRS reorganized as a separate entity of ISRO with effect from April 30, 2011.
IIRS endeavor has been to train thematic experts from user community including academic institutions in RS & GIS technology / applications at Post Graduate level with the overall goal of 'technology transfer' and user awareness. The Institute has evolved many programs that are tuned to the different needs of various target groups.
IIRS conducts a variety of courses for the different categories of users including fresh postgraduate students viz., M. Tech., M.Sc., PG Diploma Courses, 2 months NNRMS sponsored courses for University Faculty, 2 weeks on demand Special Courses and 1 week duration Overview Course for Decision Makers.
Physical Research Laboratory (PRL) at Ahmedabad, is an autonomous institution supported mainly by DOS. It is a premier institute engaged in basic research in experimental and theoretical physics, astronomy and astrophysics, earth, planetary and atmospheric sciences. The activities cover a wide spectrum of competitive research in all these areas. PRL is also involved in conducting extensive academic programmes for Doctoral and Post Doctoral research and also has an Associateship programme for university teachers. It is also entrusted with the management of the Udaipur Solar Observatory (USO).
NARL at Gadanki near Tirupati is an autonomous society supported by Department of Space. NARL has now become one of the prime centers for atmospheric research in the country specializes in basic atmospheric research, indigenous technology development for atmospheric probing and weather and climate modeling. NARL regularly operates a state-of-the-art MST radar, Rayleigh / Mie Lidar, Boundary Layer Lidar, Sodium Lidar, Lower Atmospheric Wind Profiler, Sodar, Disdrometer, Optical Rain Gauge, Dual frequency GPS receiver, Automatic Weather Station apart from regular launching of the GPS balloon sonde. Being relatively young, NARL's research facilities are available for national and international scientists to conduct atmospheric research.
NE-SAC, located at Umiam (near Shillong), Meghalaya, is a joint initiative of DOS and North Eastern Council to provide developmental support to the North Eastern region using space science and technology. The centre has the mandate to develop high technology infrastructure support to enable NE states to adopt space technology inputs for their development. At present, NE-SAC is providing developmental support by undertaking specific application projects using remote sensing, GIS, satellite communication and conducting space science research.
Semi-Conductor Laboratory (SCL), formerly known as Semiconductor Complex Limited, is presently a Society under the Department of Space with the main objective to undertake, aid, promote, guide and coordinate the R&D in the field of semiconductor technology, Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and process technologies relating to semiconductor processing in the existing 6" wafer fab. SCL has over the years developed and supplied a number of key VLSIs, majority of which have been Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) for high reliability applications in industrial and space sectors. Steps have been initiated to upgrade the facilities to fabricate devices in 0.25 micron or better technology. SCL continues to strive for technological excellence in the field of semiconductor fabrication.
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