Geo Stationary Satellites

The Indian National Satellite (INSAT) system which are placed in Geo-stationary orbits is one of the largest domestic communication satellite systems in Asia-Pacific region. Established in 1983 with commissioning of INSAT-1B, it initiated a major revolution in India’s communications sector and sustained the same later. INSAT space segment consists of 24 satellites out of which 10 are in service (INSAT-3A, INSAT-4B, INSAT-3C, INSAT-3E, KALPANA-1, INSAT-4A, INSAT-4CR,GSAT-8, GSAT-12 and GSAT-10)

The system with a total of 168 transponders in the C, Extended C and Ku-bands provides services to telecommunications, television broadcasting, weather forecasting, disaster warning and Search and Rescue operations.

GSAT-14 (Launch Date: 5-Jan-2014)

GSAT-14 is the twenty third geostationary communication satellite of India built by ISRO. The main objectives of GSAT-14 mission are: i) To augment the In-orbit capacity of Extended C and Ku-band transponders ii) To provide a platform for new experiments.

GSAT-7 (Launch Date: 30-Aug-2013)

GSAT-7 is an advanced communication satellite built by ISRO to provide wide range of service spectrum from low bit rate voice to high bit rate data communication. GSAT-7 Communication payload is designed to provide communication capabilities to users over a wide oceanic region including the Indian land-mass. The payload configuration is compatible with I-2.5K bus of ISRO. The GSAT-7 payload design includes Multiband communication.

INSAT-3D (Launch Date: 26-Jul-2013)

INSAT-3D is an advanced weather satellite of India configured with improved Imaging System and Atmospheric Sounder. INSAT-3D is designed for enhanced meteorological observations, monitoring of land and ocean surfaces, generating vertical profile of the atmosphere in terms of temperature and humidity for weather forecasting and disaster warning. The payloads of INSAT-3D will provide continuity and further augment the capability to provide various meteorological as well as search and rescue services.

GSAT-10 (Launch Date: 29-Sep-2012)

GSAT-10, India’s advanced communication satellite, is a high power satellite being inducted into the INSAT system. Weighing 3400 kg at lift-off, GSAT-10 is configured to carry 30 communication transponders in normal C-band, lower extended C-band and Ku-band as well as a GPS Aided GEO Augmented Navigation (GAGAN) payload operating in L1 and L5 bands. GSAT-10 is the second satellite to carry GAGAN payload after GSAT-8, which is already providing navigation services from orbit. GSAT-10 also carries a Ku-band beacon to help in accurately pointing ground antennas towards the satellite.

The 30 communication transponders onboard GSAT-10 will further augment the capacity in the INSAT system. The GAGAN payload provides the Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS), through which the accuracy of the positioning information obtained from the GPS satellites is improved by a network of ground based receivers and made available to the users in the country through geo-stationary satellites.

GSAT-12 (Launch Date: 15-Jul-2011)

GSAT-12, the latest communication satellite built by ISRO, weighs about 1410 kg at lift-off. GSAT-12 is configured to carry 12 Extended C-band transponders to meet the country's growing demand for transponders in a short turn-around-time.

The 12 Extended C-band transponders of GSAT-12 will augment the capacity in the INSAT system for various communication services like Tele-education, Telemedicine and for Village Resource Centres (VRC).

GSAT-8 (Launch Date: 21-May-2011 )

GSAT-8, India’s advanced communication satellite, is a high power communication satellite being inducted in the INSAT system. Weighing about 3100 Kg at lift-off, GSAT-8 is configured to carry 24 high power transponders in Ku-band and a two-channel GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation (GAGAN) payload operating in L1 and L5 bands.

The 24 Ku band transponders will augment the capacity in the INSAT system. The GAGAN payload provides the Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS), through which the accuracy of the positioning information obtained from the GPS Satellite is improved by a network of ground based receivers and made available to the users in the country through the geostationary satellites.

GSAT-5P (Launch Date: 25-Dec-2010)

GSAT-5P was the fifth satellite launched in the GSAT series. It was an exclusive communication satellite to further augment the communication services currently provided by the Indian National Satellite (INSAT) System. Weighing 2310 kg at lift-off, GSAT-5P carried 24 Normal C-band and 12 Extended C-band transponders. However, GSAT-5P was not placed in orbit as GSLV-F06 could not complete the mission.

GSAT-4 (Launch Date: 15-Apr-2010)

GSAT-4 was the nineteenth geo-stationary satellite of India built by ISRO and fourth in the GSAT series. However, GSAT-4 was not placed in orbit as GSLV-D3 could not complete the mission.

INSAT–4CR (Launch Date: 02-Sep-2007)

INSAT–4CR spacecraft is configured with exclusive Ku band employing the I-2K Bus with a mass of 2130 Kg. It was injected into the orbit by GSLV-F04 rocket with enhanced Russian Cryogenic engine and co-located at 74o East longitude along with INSAT–3C / Kalpana–1 / GSAT–3 (EDUSAT).

INSAT-4CR carries 12 high-power Ku-band transponders designed to provide Direct-to-home (DTH) television services, Video Picture Transmission (VPT) and Digital Satellite News Gathering (DSNG).

INSAT–4B (Launch Date: 12-Mar-2007)

INSAT–4B Spacecraft is the second in the INSAT 4 series of spacecrafts and is configured with exclusive communication payloads to provide services in Ku and C frequency bands. This is co-located with INSAT–3A at 93.5 o E longitude.

INSAT-4C (Launch Date: 10-Jul-2006)

India's Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV-F02), with INSAT-4C on board, was launched from Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR (SDSC SHAR), Sriharihota on July 10, 2006. However, GSLV-F02 could not complete the mission.

INSAT-4A (Launch Date: 22-Dec-2005)

INSAT-4A, first in INSAT-4 Satellites series provides services in Ku and C-band frequency bands. The Ku transponders cover the Indian main land and C-Band transponders cover an extended area. It has a dozen Ku transponders and another dozen of C-band transponders. This spacecraft is placed at 83o E along with INSAT-2E and INSAT-3B, by Ariane launch vehicle (ARIANE5-V169).

HAMSAT (Launch Date: 05-May-2005)

HAMSAT is a Micro-satellite for providing satellite based Amateur Radio services to the national as well as the international community of Amateur Radio Operators (HAM). It consists of two transponders-one indigenously developed by Indian Amateurs, with the expertise of ISRO and the experience of HAMSAT-INDIA. The second transponder has been developed by a Dutch Amateur Radio Operator and Graduate Engineering student at Higher Technical Institute, Venlo, The Netherlands.

EDUSAT (Launch Date: 20-Sep-2004)

GSAT-3, known as EDUSAT is meant for distant class room education from school level to higher education. This is the first dedicated "Educational Satellite" that provide the country with satellite based two way communication to class room for delivering educational materials. This is a Geo-synchronous satellite developed on I-2K bus. GSAT-3 is co-located with METSAT(KALPANA-1) and INSAT-3C at 74o E longitude.

INSAT-3E (Launch Date: 28-Sep-2003)

INSAT-3E is the fourth satellite launched in the INSAT-3 series. It is an exclusive communication satellite to further augment the communication services that are being provided by the INSAT System. Weighing 2775 kg at lift-off, INSAT-3E carries 24 Normal C-band and 12 Extended C-band transponders.

GSAT-2 (Launch Date: 08-May-2003)

GSAT-2 is a 2000 kg class experimental communication satellite onboard the second developmental test flight of India's Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle, GSLV-D2. The satellite carries four C-band transponders, two Ku-band transponders and a Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) payload operating in S-band and C-band for forward link and return link respectively.

GSAT-2 also carries four scientific experimental payloads - Total Radiation Dose Monitor (TRDM), Surface Charge Monitor (SCM), Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) and Coherent Radio Beacon Experiment (CRABEX).

INSAT–3A (Launch Date: 10-Apr-2003)

INSAT–3A, the third satellite in INSAT–3 series is a multipurpose satellite for providing telecommunications, television broadcasting, meteorological and search and rescue services. It carries twenty four transponders – twelve operating in the normal C – band frequency, six in extended C band and six in Ku–band. INSAT–3A also carries a Ku–band beacon.

For Meteorological observation, INSAT–3A carries a three channel Very High Resolution Radiometer (VHRR). In addition, INSAT–3A carries a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera which operates in the visible and short wave infrared bands providing a spatial resolution of 1 km.

A Data Relay Transponder (DRT) operating in UHF band is incorporated for real time hydro meteorological data collection from unattended located on land and river basins. The data is then relayed in extended C–band to a central location.

INSAT–3A also carries another transponder for Satellite Aided Search and rescue (SA&R) as part of India’s contribution to the international Satellite Aided Search Programme.

Kalpana-1(Launch Date: 12-Sep-2002)

METSAT (renamed as Kalpana - 1 on February 5, 2003 after the Indian born American Astronaut Dr. Kalpana Chawla, who died on February 1, 2003 in the US Space Shuttle Columbia disaster) is the first in the series of exclusive meteorological satellites built by ISRO.

INSAT-3C (Launch Date: 24-Jan-2002)

INSAT-3C, carrying Fixed Satellite Services (FSS) transponders, Broadcast Satellite Services (BSS) transponders and Mobile Satellite Services (MSS) transponders is intended to continue the service of INSAT-2DT and INSAT-2C which were nearing their end to life besides improving and augmenting the INSAT system capacity. INSAT-3C is the second satellite of the INSAT-3 series. The first satellite, INSAT-3B was launched in March 2000.

GSAT-1 (Launch Date: 18.04.2001)

GSAT-1 carrying three C-band transponders and one S-band transponder was launched on April 18, 2001 by GSLV-D1. GSAT-1 is used for conducting communication experiments like digital audio broadcast, internet services and compressed digital TV transmission. Several new spacecraft elements like improved reaction control thrusters, fast recovery star sensors and heat pipe radiator panels were also tested on this satellite.

INSAT–3B (Launch Date: 22-Mar-2000)

INSAT – 3B is the first of the five ISRO built satellites under INSAT – 3 series to join INSAT system. INSAT – 3B is collocated with INSAT – 2E at 83 deg East Longitude. This satellite primarily serves to business communication, mobile communication and developmental communication;it provides the first set to transponders for Swaran Jayanti Vidya Vikas Antariksh Upagraha Yojana (Vidya Vahini) for interactive training and developmental communication giving fillip to the training and developmental Communication channel of INSAT.

INSAT-2E (Launch Date: 03-Apr-1999)

INSAT-2E, the last of the INSAT-2 series of satellites built by ISRO, is a multi - purpose satellite for telecommunication, television broadcasting and meteorological services. The very High Resolution Radiometer will operate in three spectral bands with 2 km resolution in visible band and 8km resolution in thermal infrared and water vapour bands. The water vapour band has been introduced in the INSAT system for the first time. In addition, INSAT - 2E will also carry a Charge Coupled Device Camera, again for the first time in the INSAT. This camera will also operate in three spectral bands - visible, near infrared and short wave infrared - providing a spatial resolution of 1 km.

INSAT-2DT (Launch Date: Jan 1998)

The three Arabsat 1 spacecraft are based on the Aerospatiale and MBB Spacebus-100 platform. Ranging from nearly 600 kg to almost 800 kg at the start of life in GEO, the spacecraft measure 1.5 m by 1.6 m by 2.3 m with a solar array span of about 21 m for 1.4 kW of electrical power. The primary communications payload consists of two S-band transponders and 25 C-band transponders. The nominal design life was seven years.

INSAT-2D (Launch Date: 04-June-1997)

Become Inoperable in October 1997 due to power bus anomaly. Replaced by INSAT-2DT.

INSAT-2C (07-Dec-1995)

Power of four C-band transponders increased to improve communication facilities in remote areas like Northeast and Andaman & Nicobar Islands. Coverage of two other C-band transponders is enlarged to include parts of southeast Asia, Central Asia and West Asia


Multi purpose Communication, meteorology andSatellite based search and rescue.

INSAT-2A (Launch Date: 10-Jul-1992)

First Multipurpose satellite built by India, Sucessfully Operationalised in August 1992.

INSAT-1D (Launch Date: 12-June-1990)

The specification for the Insat-1D is the same as the Insat-1B but with expanded battery and propellant capacities. Launched on 12 June 1990 to conclude the first generation Insat series.

INSAT-1C (Launch Date: 21-Jul-1988)

The Insat-1C satellite was launched on 21 July 1988 from Kourou for location at 93.5°E to bring the Insat system up to full capacity. Half of the 12 C-band transponders and its two S-band transponders were lost when a power system failure knocked out one of the two buses, but the meteorological earth images and its data collection systems were both fully operational.

INSAT-1B (Launch Date: 30-Aug-1983)

When Insat-1B was launched on 30 August 1983, it almost suffered the same fate as the Insat-1A. It was not until mid-September that Ford and Indian controllers succeeded in deploying its solar array. By then it had been stationed at 74°E in place of Insat-1A. Full operational capability was achieved in October 1983. It continued to operate into 1990 with all its 4375 two-way voice or equivalent circuits in use. Around 36,000 earth images were returned.

INSAT-1A (Launch Date: 10-Apr-1982)

The Insat-1A was launched by a Delta in April 1982 but was abandoned in September 1983 when its attitude control propellant was exhausted.

Career Scope in Print Media

Print media are lightweight, portable, disposable publications printed on paper and circulated as physical copies in forms we call books, newspapers, magazines and newsletters. They hold informative and entertaining content that is of general or special interest. They are published either once or daily, weekly, biweekly, monthly, bimonthly or quarterly. Print Media is the oldest form of media. But even today it is growing from strength to strength. Around 4000 small, medium and large newspapers and magazines across the county are registered with the Registrar of Newspapers every year. This indicates that it is a growing sector where employment opportunities are increasing with each passing day. Most of the young aspirants who want to enter the print media prefer reporting, but newspapers and magazines also seek young talent as photographers, artists, editors, computer experts, librarians, and cartoonists. Students who have writing ability, graphics or photo skills, curiosity and deter →

Oscars 2018 (90th Academy Awards Winners) List Best Picture Actor

Oscar Award 2018 (Also called 90th annual Academy Awards) ceremony was held on 4th March 2018. The Shape of Water led the 90th Academy Awards, winning best picture and best director (for Guillermo del Toro). The film also nabbed prizes for production design and original score. Gary Oldman won the lead actor award for his work as Winston Churchill in Darkest Hour. Frances McDormand earned her second best actress Oscar for her role as a grieving mother in Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, Missouri. Winner List of Oscar Award 2018 (90th annual Academy Awards) Best Picture - The Shape of Water Actor In A Leading Role - Gary Oldman, Darkest Hour Actress In A Leading Role - Frances Mcdormand, Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, Missouri Best Directing - Guillermo Del Toro, The Shape Of Water Original Song - Remember Me from coco Music and lyric by kristen anderson-lopez and robert lopez Original Score - Shape of Water, Alexandre Desplat Cinematography - Blade Runner 2049, Roger A. Deakins Orig →

What is the Indo US Civilian Nuclear Deal?

India and the United States signed a landmark deal in October 2008, which allows India access to US civil nuclear fuel and technology. What is it that makes this deal so significant? How does India stand to gain from it ? Here are some answers to these questions : What is the Indo-U.S. Civilian Nuclear Deal ? This is a deal between India and the United States for civil nuclear cooperation. Under this agreement, the United States can sell civilian nuclear fuel and technology to India. India in turn, has to separate its civil and military nuclear facilities and place all its civil nuclear facilities under International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) inspection. The accord took three years to be finalized, during which it went through a series of complex stages that included amendment of U.S. domestic law, formulation of a civil-military nuclear separation plan in India, an India-IAEA safeguards (inspections) agreement and the grant of an exemption for India by the Nuclear Suppliers' →

Genetically Modified Food or Crops

Genetic Modification Genetic modification refers to techniques used to manipulate the genetic composition of an organism by adding specific useful genes. A gene is a sequence of DNA that contains information that determines a particular characteristic/trait. All organisms have DNA (genes). Genes are located in chromosomes. Genes are units of inheritance that are passed from one generation to the next and provide instructions for development and function of the organism. Crops that are developed through genetic modification are referred to as genetically modified (GM) crops, transgenic crops or genetically engineered (GE) crops. Over the last 30 years, the field of genetic engineering has developed rapidly due to the greater understanding of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as the chemical double helix code from which genes are made. The term genetic engineering is used to describe the process by which the genetic makeup of an organism can be altered using “recombinant DNA technology.” This →

  • Contribute to our Site

    If you contribute your content to our site. Please mail us your content to

Follow us on Social Media

Follow us on Facebook
Follow us on Google Plus
Follow us on Twitter