An independent Election Commission has been established under the Constitution in order to carry out and regulate the holding of elections in India.
The Election Commission was established in accordance with the Constitution on 25th January 1950. Originally a Chief Election Commissioner ran the commission, but first in 1989 and later again in 1993 two additional Election Commissioners were appointed.The Election Commission is responsible for the conduct of elections to parliament and state legislatures and to the offices of the President and Vice-President.
The Election Commission prepares, maintains and periodically updates the Electoral Roll, which shows who is entitled to vote, supervises the nomination of candidates, registers political parties, monitors the election campaign, including candidates’ funding. It also facilitates the coverage of the election processby the media, organises the polling booths where voting takes place, and looks after the counting of votes and the declaration of results. All this is done to ensure that elections can take place in an orderly and fair manner.
At present, there are two Election Commissioners appointed by the President. Chief Election Commissioner can be removed from office only by parliamentary impeachment. The Commission decides most matters by consensus but in case of any dissension, the majority view prevails.
|Sukumar Sen||21 March 1950-19 December 1958|
|K.V.K. Sundaram||20 December 1958-30 September 1967|
|S. P. Sen Verma||1 October 1967-30 September 1972|
|Dr Nagendra Singh||1 October 1972-6 February 1973|
|T. Swaminathan||7 February 1973-17 June 1977|
|S. L. Shakdhar||18 June 1977-17 June 1982|
|R. K. Trivedi||18 June 1982-31 December 1985|
|R. V. S. Peri Sastri||1 January 1986-25 November 1990|
|Smt V. S. Rama Devi||26 November 1990-11 December 1990|
|T. N. Seshan||12 December 1990-11 December 1996|
|M.S. Gill||12 December 1996-13 June 2001|
|J. M. Lyngdoh||14 June 2001-7 February 2004|
|T.S. Krishna Murthy||8 February 2004-15 May 2005|
|B.B. Tandon||16 May 2005-07 February 2006|
|N. Gopalaswamy||8 February 2006 - 30 April 2009|
|Navin Chawla||2 May 2009 - 30th July 2010|
|Dr. S. Y. Quraishi||30th July 2010 - 10th June 2012|
|V S Sampath||10th June 2012 - 15th January 2015|
|Mr. Hari Shankar Brahma||16th January 2015 to till date|
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63rd Filmfare Awards ceremony, presented by the Filmfare Magazine, honored the best Hindi language Indian films of 2017. The ceremony was held on 20 January 2018 at the NSCI Dome in Worli, Mumbai. Winner of the 63rd Jio Filmfare Awards 2018 Best Film Hindi Medium Critics' Award for Best Film Newton Best Actor In A Leading Role (Female) Vidya Balan for Tumhari Sulu Best Actor In A Leading Role (Male) Irrfan Khan for Hindi Medium Critics' Award for Best Actor (Male) Rajkummar Rao for Trapped Critics' Award for Best Actor (Female) Zaira Wasim for Secret Superstar Best Director Ashwiny Iyer Tiwari for Bareilly Ki Barfi Best Debut Director Konkona Sensharma for A Death in the Gunj Best Actor In A Supporting Role (Male) Rajkummar Rao for Bareilly Ki Barfi Best Actor in a Supporting Role (Female) Meher Vij for Secret Superstar Best Dialogue Hitesh Kewalya for Shubh Mangal Saavdhan Best Screenplay Shubhashish Bhutiani for Mukti Bhavan Best Original Story Amit Masurka →
In 2009, an unknown programmer by the name of Satoshi Nakamoto put forward a whitepaper that proposed a creation of new form of digital currency - cryptocurrency. Cryptocurrency functions the same way as regular currencies do in that its used as a means of exchange, unit of account and a store of value. Cryptocurrency, just like other resources, has some demand for it, and subsequently a market price. The significant difference is Bitcoin’s intangibility - there is no bank-issued notes or papers - meaning that rather being used in hand-to-hand transactions, Bitcoins are stored and exchanged digitally within a decentralized, peer-to-peer network. The original Bitcoin software developed by Satoshi Nakamoto was released under the MIT license. Most client software, derived or "from scratch", also use open source licensing. Bitcoin is one of the first successful implementations of a distributed crypto-currency, described in part in 1998 by Wei Dai on the cypherpunks mailing list. Building →
Genetic Modification Genetic modification refers to techniques used to manipulate the genetic composition of an organism by adding specific useful genes. A gene is a sequence of DNA that contains information that determines a particular characteristic/trait. All organisms have DNA (genes). Genes are located in chromosomes. Genes are units of inheritance that are passed from one generation to the next and provide instructions for development and function of the organism. Crops that are developed through genetic modification are referred to as genetically modified (GM) crops, transgenic crops or genetically engineered (GE) crops. Over the last 30 years, the field of genetic engineering has developed rapidly due to the greater understanding of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as the chemical double helix code from which genes are made. The term genetic engineering is used to describe the process by which the genetic makeup of an organism can be altered using “recombinant DNA technology.” This →
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