Important Historical Events

2500-1800Indus valley civilization.
599Birth of Mahavir; Nirvana in 523. B.C.
563Birth of Gautam Buddha;Nirvana in 483 B.C.
327-26Alexander's invasion of India and the opening of land route between India and Europe.
269-232Ashoka's reign.
261Battle of Kalinga.
57Beginning of Vikrama era.
30Satvahana dynasty in Deooan. Pandyan empire in for south.
326Alexander defeated Poras in the Battle of Hydaspas
261Ashoka defeated Kalinga in the Kalinga War
78Beginning of Saka era.
320Beginning of Gupta era.
360Samudragupta conquers the whole of N. India and much of the Deccan.
380-413Rule of Chandragupta Vikramaditya, age of Kalidasa, renewal of induism.
606-647Rule of Harshavardhana.
629-645Hieun Tsang's visit in India.
622Beginning of Hijra era.
712Arab invasion of Sind by Mohd. bin Qasim.
1001-27Repeated attacks of Mehmud Ghazni.
1025Sacking of Somnath temple by Mehmud.
1191First battle of Tarain in which Prithviraj Chauhan defeated Mohd. Ghori.
1192Second battle of Tarain in which Mohd. Ghori defeated Prithviraj Chauhan.
1206Qutubuddin Aibak founded the Ilbari/Slave dynasty.
1290Jalaluddin Firuz Khilji established Khilji dynasty.
1290Marco Polo visited India.
1320Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq founded the Tughlaq dynasty.
1333Ibn Batuta arrived in India.
1336Harihara and Bukka founded the Vijaynagar empire.
1347Bahmani kingdom founded.
1398Timur invades India.
1451Lodi dynasty comes in power in Delhi Sultanate.
1469Birth of Guru Nanak Dev.
1498Vasco da Gama lands at Calicut.
1510Portuguese capture Goa-Albuquerque Governor.
1526First Battle of Panipat in which Babar defeated Ibrahim Lodhi and established the Mughal dynasty.
1556Second battle of Panipat in which Akbar defeated Hemu.
1565Battle of Talikota in which Vijaynagar empire is defeated.
1571Foundation of Fatehpur Sikri by Akbar.
1576Battle of Haldighati in which Akbar defeated Maharana Pratap.
1582Akbar started Din-i-llahi.
1600English East India Company established.
1604Compilation of Adi Granth.
1605Death of Akbar.
1611The English built a factory at Masulipatnam.
1627Birth of Shivaji
1631Death of Shah Jahan's wife Mumtaz Mahal. The building of Taj Mahal.
1658Aurangzeb became Emperor of Delhi.
1666Birth of Guru Gobind Singh.
1699Guru Gobind Singh creates 'Khalsa'.
1707Death of Aurangzeb, fall of Mughal empire begins.
1739Nadir Shah invaded India;the peacock throne and the Kohinoor Diamond taken away from India.
1757Battle of Plassey in which the English defeated Siraj-ud- daula, Nawab of Bengal.
1760Battle of Wandiwash, end of French power in India,
1761Third Battle of Panipat in which Ahmed Shah Abdali defeated the Marathas.
1764Battle of Buxar in which the English defeated the triple alliance of Nawab Mir Qasim of Bengal, Nawab Shuja-ud-daula of Awadh and Mughal emperor Shah Alam.
1793Permanent settlement in Bengal.
1799Fourth Anglo Mysore War, death of Tipu Sultan, Ranjit Singh occupied Lahore and made it his capital.
1817-19Marathas finally crushed.
1828Lord William Bentick becomes Governor General;Era of social reforms;Prohibition of Sati (1829), Suppression of thugs (1830).
1835Introduction of English as medium of instruction.
1853First Indian railway from Bombay to Thane.
1857-58First war of Indian Independence.
1858British crown takes over the Indian Government;End of East India Company's rule.
1861Birth of Rabindra Nath Tagore.
1869Birth of M.K. Gandhi.
1885Formation of Indian National Congress.
1905Partition of Bengal by Lord Curzon.
1906Formation of All India Muslim League.
1909Minto-Morley Reforms.
1911Delhi durbar held, partition of Bengal cancelled, capital shifted from Calcutta to Delhi.
1914World War I started.
1918End of World War I.
1919Rowlatt Act, Jallianwala Bagh massacre, Montague- Chelmsford reforms.
1920Non-cooperation Movement launched,
1921Moplah rebellian in Malabar;visit of Prince of Wales.
1922Chauri-Chaura incidence.
1923Swaraj party formed.
1927Simon Commission appointed.
1928Visit of Simon Commission to India, death of Lala Lajpat Rai.
1929 Congress demanded'Poorna Swaraj'in Lahore session.
1930January 26 celebrated as Independence Day throughout India, Dandi Salt Satyagraha, First Round Table conference.
1931Gandhi-lrvin Pact, Second Round Table Conference.
1932Suppression of Congress Movement, Third Round Table Conference, Communal Award, Poona Pact.
1935Government of India Act.
1937Inauguration of Provincial Autonomy. Congress ministries formed in 8 out of 11 provinces.
1939Resignation of Congress ministries, beginning of World War II.
1942Cripps Mission Plan, Quit India Movement, Formation of Indian National Army by S.C. Bose.
1945Simla conference held and the failure of Wavell Plan, INA trials at Red Fort, Delhi.
1946Cabinet Mission Plan, Formation of Interim Government, Direct Action Resolution by Muslim League.
1947Mountbatten Plan of June 3 in which partition of India resolution is proposed, India divided, Pakistan created, both achieve independence, Jawarhar Lai Nehru becomes the I Prime Minister of India.

Career Scope in Print Media

Print media are lightweight, portable, disposable publications printed on paper and circulated as physical copies in forms we call books, newspapers, magazines and newsletters. They hold informative and entertaining content that is of general or special interest. They are published either once or daily, weekly, biweekly, monthly, bimonthly or quarterly. Print Media is the oldest form of media. But even today it is growing from strength to strength. Around 4000 small, medium and large newspapers and magazines across the county are registered with the Registrar of Newspapers every year. This indicates that it is a growing sector where employment opportunities are increasing with each passing day. Most of the young aspirants who want to enter the print media prefer reporting, but newspapers and magazines also seek young talent as photographers, artists, editors, computer experts, librarians, and cartoonists. Students who have writing ability, graphics or photo skills, curiosity and deter →

65th National Film Awards for 2017

The 65th National Film Awards 2017 were announced by the Chairpersons of the juries on Feature Films, Best Writing on Cinema and members of Dadasaheb Phalke Award and Non-Feature films. The Feature Film Central panel was headed by Shri Shekhar Kapur, an eminent filmmaker known for his works in Hindi cinema and international cinema. The Non- Feature Film panel was headed by Shri. Nakul Kamte and the Best Cinema on Writing jury by Shri.Anant Vijay. The National Film Awards would be presented by Hon’ble President of India on May 3rd, 2018. Winner of 65th National Film Awards for 2017Best Feature Film - Village Rockstars, Language: Assamese, Directed by Rima Das. Indira Gandhi award for best debut film of a director - Sinjar, Language: Jasari, Directed by Pampally. Best Popular Film Providing Wholesome Entertainment- Baahubali - The Conclusion, Language: Telugu, Directed by S S Rajamouli. Nargis Dutt Award For Best Feature Film On National Integration - Dhappa, Language: Marathi, Directed →

What is Bitcoin?

In 2009, an unknown programmer by the name of Satoshi Nakamoto put forward a whitepaper that proposed a creation of new form of digital currency - cryptocurrency. Cryptocurrency functions the same way as regular currencies do in that its used as a means of exchange, unit of account and a store of value. Cryptocurrency, just like other resources, has some demand for it, and subsequently a market price. The significant difference is Bitcoin’s intangibility - there is no bank-issued notes or papers - meaning that rather being used in hand-to-hand transactions, Bitcoins are stored and exchanged digitally within a decentralized, peer-to-peer network. The original Bitcoin software developed by Satoshi Nakamoto was released under the MIT license. Most client software, derived or "from scratch", also use open source licensing. Bitcoin is one of the first successful implementations of a distributed crypto-currency, described in part in 1998 by Wei Dai on the cypherpunks mailing list. Building →

Genetically Modified Food or Crops

Genetic Modification Genetic modification refers to techniques used to manipulate the genetic composition of an organism by adding specific useful genes. A gene is a sequence of DNA that contains information that determines a particular characteristic/trait. All organisms have DNA (genes). Genes are located in chromosomes. Genes are units of inheritance that are passed from one generation to the next and provide instructions for development and function of the organism. Crops that are developed through genetic modification are referred to as genetically modified (GM) crops, transgenic crops or genetically engineered (GE) crops. Over the last 30 years, the field of genetic engineering has developed rapidly due to the greater understanding of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as the chemical double helix code from which genes are made. The term genetic engineering is used to describe the process by which the genetic makeup of an organism can be altered using “recombinant DNA technology.” This →

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