Humidity of the air refers to the content of water vapour present in the air at a particular time and place. The moisture retaining capacity or humidity capacity refers to the capacity of an air of certain volume at certain temperature to retain maximum amount of moisture content.
Saturated air: The air having moisture content equal to its humidity capacity is called saturated air. Humidity capacity of air is directly proportional to the temperature, i.e. higher the temperature higher the humidity capacity of "the air.
Dew Point: The temperature at which the air becomes "saturated is called Dew Point. Humidity is expressed in three forms:
The transformation of gaseous form of water into solid or liquid form is called condensation. The process of condensation depends upon two factors:
Due to fall in temperature, condensation starts around the dust particles present in the atmosphere. These tiny dust particles are called 'hygroscopic nuclei'.
Dust, smoke and salt particles are considered good hygroscopic nuclei. The process of condensation results into the formation of dew, fog, clouds and mist. These are known as different forms of condensation.
Clouds are defined as aggregates of innumerable tiny water droplets, ice particles or mixture of both in the air generally much above the ground surface.
When the moist air rises upwards, it starts condensing due to fall in temperature. Clouds are formed after condensation of water vapour around hygroscopic nuclei. Rainfall occurs only when cloud droplets become so large due to that the air becomes unable to hold them. Based on the mode of origin, rainfall is classified into these types:
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