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Current Affairs 2017

Rohan Bopanna and Pablo Cuevas win Monte Carlo Masters doubles crown

India’s Rohan Bopanna and his Uruguayan partner Pablo Cuevas lifted the men’s doubles crown at the Monte Carlo Masters after registering a hard- fought three-set win over Spain’s Feliciano Lopez and Marc Lopez in Monaco.

Employment News

Aeronautical Development Agency, Bangalore www.ada.gov.in invites applications for Project Assistant 01 post Refer website or Employment News dated 25-31 March 2017...

What is the Indo-US Civilian Nuclear Deal?

India and the United States signed a landmark deal in October 2008, which allows India access to US civil nuclear fuel and technology. What is it that makes this deal so significant? How does India stand to gain from it ? Here are some answers to these questions :

What is the Indo-U.S. Civilian Nuclear Deal ?

This is a deal between India and the United States for civil nuclear cooperation. Under this agreement, the United States can sell civilian nuclear fuel and technology to India. India in turn, has to separate its civil and military nuclear facilities and place all its civil nuclear facilities under International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) inspection. The accord took three years to be finalized, during which it went through a series of complex stages that included amendment of U.S. domestic law, formulation of a civil-military nuclear separation plan in India, an India-IAEA safeguards (inspections) agreement and the grant of an exemption for India by the Nuclear Suppliers' Group (NSG).

What are the Hyde Act and the 123 Agreement ?

Under Section 123 of its Atomic Energy Act, the United States can enter into civilian nuclear trade only with those countries that have signed the NPT and CTBT. India has signed neither treaty. Further, after its first nuclear test in 1974, the United States had placed a ban on the supply of nuclear fuel and technology to India. In order to sign the present deal, the section 123 of the Atomic Energy Act needed to be amended. The Hyde Act 2006, a domestic Act of the United States, was accordingly brought in to amend this Section and provide a legal framework for a 123 Agreement with India. With this agreement India becomes the only non-NPT/CTBT signatory to have signed the 123 Agreement with the United States.

Who are the Nuclear Suppliers Group ?

Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) is a 45 nation body concerned with reducing nuclear proliferation by controlling trade in nuclear fuel and technology. Their policies had so far kept India out of bounds of international nuclear trade as it has not signed the NPT and CTBT. Some countries in the NSG had misgivings about giving India the unprecedented waiver of carrying on international civil nuclear trade even without signing the NPT, but the approval finally came through keeping in view India's strong non-proliferation records, and its voluntary declaration of "no first use" of nuclear weapons.

What does India get from the Agreement ?

Indo-US Civil nuclear deal has paved the way for the growth of the nuclear power sector in India, which has so far been plagued by shortages of nuclear fuel. India has limited reserves of Uranium, which is the crucial fuel needed at the present stage of our nuclear power programme. Due to the shortage of uranium, India's nuclear power generation is only about 1800 Mw against an installed capacity of 4120 Mw. With the present agreement, which is valid for 40 years and extendable by another 10 years, India hopes to address this fuel shortage. Under this agreement the US is committed to ensure uninterrupted fuel supply to safeguard Indian reactors and create strategic fuel reserves for them, and also work with other NSG countries to ensure supply of nuclear fuel to India. The ambit of the deal includes research, development, design, construction, operation, maintenance and use of nuclear reactors, reactor experiments and decommissioning. To ensure smoothness, the agreement provides for elaborate consultations between the two parties in the event of either side wanting to terminate the deal before its normal time.

Further, the agreement also lays down the clause of "non-interference " in India's strategic programme. Thus, the Indian nuclear power programme stands to get a much needed push without any threat to its strategic programme.

And what does India give?

As part of the bargain India has agreed for separation of its nuclear facilities, placing the civilian facilities under IAEA safeguards in perpetuity. The safeguard is aimed at ensuring that the nuclear material or technology brought in for civilian purposes is not diverted for military use. Out of its 22 operating/under construction nuclear facilities, India will place 14 under IAEA safeguard.

Nobel Prize 2016

Nobel Prize in Physics 2016 The Nobel Prize in Physics 2016 was divided, one half awarded to David J. Thouless (University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA), the other half jointly to F. Duncan M. Haldane (Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA) and J. Michael Kosterlitz (Brown University, Providence, RI, USA) "for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter". Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2016 The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2016 was awarded jointly to Jean-Pierre Sauvage (University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France), Sir J. Fraser Stoddart (Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA) and Bernard L. Feringa (University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands) "for the design and synthesis of molecular machines". Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2016 The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2016 was awarded to Yoshinori Ohsumi (Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan) "for his discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy". Nobel Prize in Li ...

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What are the Child Rights?

Who is a Child? Article 1 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child says, a child means every human being below the age of eighteen years unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier. What is the Convention on the Rights of the Child? The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, often referred to as CRC or UNCRC, is an international convention setting out the civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights of children. Nations that ratify this international convention are bound by it by international law. The Convention- on the Rights of the Child defines basic rights of children covering multiple needs and issues. India endorsed it on December 11, 1992. Following are a few rights in the immediate purview. The right to Education: 50% of Indian children aged 6-18 do not go to school Dropout rates increase alarmingly in class III to V, its 50% for boys, 58% for girls. The right to Expression: Every child has a right to e ...

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Genetically Modified Food or Crops

Genetic Modification Genetic modification refers to techniques used to manipulate the genetic composition of an organism by adding specific useful genes. A gene is a sequence of DNA that contains information that determines a particular characteristic/trait. All organisms have DNA (genes). Genes are located in chromosomes. Genes are units of inheritance that are passed from one generation to the next and provide instructions for development and function of the organism. Crops that are developed through genetic modification are referred to as genetically modified (GM) crops, transgenic crops or genetically engineered (GE) crops. Over the last 30 years, the field of genetic engineering has developed rapidly due to the greater understanding of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as the chemical double helix code from which genes are made. The term genetic engineering is used to describe the process by which the genetic makeup of an organism can be altered using “recombinant DNA technology.” This ...

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Career Scope in Print Media

Print media are lightweight, portable, disposable publications printed on paper and circulated as physical copies in forms we call books, newspapers, magazines and newsletters. They hold informative and entertaining content that is of general or special interest. They are published either once or daily, weekly, biweekly, monthly, bimonthly or quarterly. Print Media is the oldest form of media. But even today it is growing from strength to strength. Around 4000 small, medium and large newspapers and magazines across the county are registered with the Registrar of Newspapers every year. This indicates that it is a growing sector where employment opportunities are increasing with each passing day. Most of the young aspirants who want to enter the print media prefer reporting, but newspapers and magazines also seek young talent as photographers, artists, editors, computer experts, librarians, and cartoonists. Students who have writing ability, graphics or photo skills, curiosity and deter ...

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