What is Budget?

Budget is also called the Annual Financial Statement. This is the main budget document. Under Article 112 of the Constitution, a statement of estimated receipts and expenditure of the government of India has to be laid before Parliament for every financial year. This statement shows the receipts and payments of Government under the three parts in which Government accounts are kept: (1) Consolidated Fund (2) Contingency Fund and (3) Public Account.

What is Revenue Budget?

This consists of the revenue receipts of the government (tax revenues and other revenues) and the expenditure met from these revenues. Tax revenues comprise proceeds of taxes and other duties levied by the Union. Other revenues are receipts of the government mainly consisting of interest and dividend on investments made by government fees and receipts for other services rendered by the government. Revenue Expenditure is expenditure for the normal running of government departments and various services, interest charges on debt incurred by government, subsidies and so on. Broadly speaking, expenditure which does not result in the creation of assets is treated as revenue expenditure. All grants given to state governments and other parties are also treated as revenue expenditure even though some of the grants may be for creation of assets.

What is Capital Budget?

This consists of capital receipts and payments. It also incorporates transactions in the Public Account. Capital receipts are loans raised by government from the public which are called market loans, borrowings by government from Reserve Bank and other parties through sale of Treasury Bills, loans received from foreign bodies and governments and recoveries of loans granted by Central government to state and Union territory governments and other parties. Capital payments consists of capital expenditure on acquisition of assets like land, buildings, machinery, equipment, as also investments in shares, loans and advances granted by central government to state and union territory governments, government companies, corporations and other parties.

Career Scope in Print Media

Print media are lightweight, portable, disposable publications printed on paper and circulated as physical copies in forms we call books, newspapers, magazines and newsletters. They hold informative and entertaining content that is of general or special interest. They are published either once or daily, weekly, biweekly, monthly, bimonthly or quarterly. Print Media is the oldest form of media. But even today it is growing from strength to strength. Around 4000 small, medium and large newspapers and magazines across the county are registered with the Registrar of Newspapers every year. This indicates that it is a growing sector where employment opportunities are increasing with each passing day. Most of the young aspirants who want to enter the print media prefer reporting, but newspapers and magazines also seek young talent as photographers, artists, editors, computer experts, librarians, and cartoonists. Students who have writing ability, graphics or photo skills, curiosity and deter →

Swachh Survekshan 2017 Rankings

Swachh Survekshan-2017 commissioned by the Ministry of Urban Development during January – February, 2017 aimed at capturing the improvement in sanitation scenario, primarily based on making cities and towns Open Defecation Free and improvement in processing of municipal solid waste. Accordingly, it is outcome oriented. Criteria and weightages for different components of sanitation related aspects used for the Survey are: Solid Waste Management including Door-to-Door collection, Processing and Disposal, ODF status etc: 45% of total 2,000 marks i.e 900 marksCitizen feedback : 30% i.e 600 of total marksIndependent observation : 25% i.e 500 marks List of the cities and their rank Ranking City State 1 Indore Madhya Pradesh 2 Bhopal Madhya Pradesh 3 Visakhapatnam (Vizag) Andhra Pradesh 4 Surat Gujarat 5 Mysuru (Mysore) Karnataka 6 Tiruchirappalli (Trichy) Tamil Nadu 7 New Delhi Municipal Council (NDMC) Delhi 8 Navi Mumbai →

What is Micro Credit and Self Help Group?

Micro Credit is defined as provision of thrift, credit and other financial services and products of very small amount to the poor in rural, semi-urban and urban areas for enabling them to raise their income levels and improve living standards. Micro Credit Institutions are those which provide these facilities. What is a Self-Help Group ? A Self-Help Group (SHG) is a registered or unregistered group of micro entrepreneurs having homogenous social and economic background, voluntarily coming together to save small amounts regularly. They mutually agree to contribute to a common fund and to meet their emergency needs on mutual help basis. The group members use collective wisdom and peer pressure to ensure proper end-use of credit and timely repayment thereof. In fact, peer pressure has been recognized as an effective substitute for collaterals. →

Genetically Modified Food or Crops

Genetic Modification Genetic modification refers to techniques used to manipulate the genetic composition of an organism by adding specific useful genes. A gene is a sequence of DNA that contains information that determines a particular characteristic/trait. All organisms have DNA (genes). Genes are located in chromosomes. Genes are units of inheritance that are passed from one generation to the next and provide instructions for development and function of the organism. Crops that are developed through genetic modification are referred to as genetically modified (GM) crops, transgenic crops or genetically engineered (GE) crops. Over the last 30 years, the field of genetic engineering has developed rapidly due to the greater understanding of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as the chemical double helix code from which genes are made. The term genetic engineering is used to describe the process by which the genetic makeup of an organism can be altered using “recombinant DNA technology.” This →