Budget is also called the Annual Financial Statement. This is the main budget document. Under Article 112 of the Constitution, a statement of estimated receipts and expenditure of the government of India has to be laid before Parliament for every financial year. This statement shows the receipts and payments of Government under the three parts in which Government accounts are kept: (1) Consolidated Fund (2) Contingency Fund and (3) Public Account.
What is Revenue Budget?
This consists of the revenue receipts of the government (tax revenues and other revenues) and the expenditure met from these revenues. Tax revenues comprise proceeds of taxes and other duties levied by the Union. Other revenues are receipts of the government mainly consisting of interest and dividend on investments made by government fees and receipts for other services rendered by the government. Revenue Expenditure is expenditure for the normal running of government departments and various services, interest charges on debt incurred by government, subsidies and so on. Broadly speaking, expenditure which does not result in the creation of assets is treated as revenue expenditure. All grants given to state governments and other parties are also treated as revenue expenditure even though some of the grants may be for creation of assets.
What is Capital Budget?
This consists of capital receipts and payments. It also incorporates transactions in the Public Account. Capital receipts are loans raised by government from the public which are called market loans, borrowings by government from Reserve Bank and other parties through sale of Treasury Bills, loans received from foreign bodies and governments and recoveries of loans granted by Central government to state and Union territory governments and other parties. Capital payments consists of capital expenditure on acquisition of assets like land, buildings, machinery, equipment, as also investments in shares, loans and advances granted by central government to state and union territory governments, government companies, corporations and other parties.