Capital Market

Capital market is one of the most important segments of the Indian financial system. It is the market available to the companies for meeting their requirements of the long-term funds. It refers to all the facilities and the institutional arrangements for borrowing and lending funds. In other words, it is concerned with the raising of money capital for purposes of making long-term investments. The market consists of a number of individuals and institutions (including the Government) that canalise the supply and demand for long -term capital and claims on it. The demand for long term capital comes predominantly from private sector manufacturing industries, agriculture sector, trade and the Government agencies. While, the supply of funds for the capital market comes largely from individual and corporate savings, banks, insurance companies, specialised financing agencies and the surplus of Governments.

The Indian capital market is broadly divided into the gilt-edged market and the industrial securities market.

  • The gilt-edged market refers to the market for Government and semi-government securities, backed by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI). Government securities are tradeable debt instruments issued by the Government for meeting its financial requirements. The term gilt-edged means 'of the best quality'. This is because the Government securities do not suffer from risk of default and are highly liquid (as they can be easily sold in the market at their current price). The open market operations of the RBI are also conducted in such securities.
  • The industrial securities market refers to the market which deals in equities and debentures of the corporates. It is further divided into primary market and secondary market.
    • Primary market (new issue market):- deals with 'new securities', that is, securities which were not previously available and are offered to the investing public for the first time. It is the market for raising fresh capital in the form of shares and debentures. It provides the issuing company with additional funds for starting a new enterprise or for either expansion or diversification of an existing one, and thus its contribution to company financing is direct. The new offerings by the companies are made either as an initial public offering (IPO) or rights issue.
    • Secondary market/ stock market (old issues market or stock exchange):- is the market for buying and selling securities of the existing companies. Under this, securities are traded after being initially offered to the public in the primary market and/or listed on the stock exchange. The stock exchanges are the exclusive centres for trading of securities. It is a sensitive barometer and reflects the trends in the economy through fluctuations in the prices of various securities. It been defined as, "a body of individuals, whether incorporated or not, constituted for the purpose of assisting, regulating and controlling the business of buying, selling and dealing in securities". Listing on stock exchanges enables the shareholders to monitor the movement of the share prices in an effective manner. This assist them to take prudent decisions on whether to retain their holdings or sell off or even accumulate further. However, to list the securities on a stock exchange, the issuing company has to go through set norms and procedures.

Career Scope in Print Media

Print media are lightweight, portable, disposable publications printed on paper and circulated as physical copies in forms we call books, newspapers, magazines and newsletters. They hold informative and entertaining content that is of general or special interest. They are published either once or daily, weekly, biweekly, monthly, bimonthly or quarterly. Print Media is the oldest form of media. But even today it is growing from strength to strength. Around 4000 small, medium and large newspapers and magazines across the county are registered with the Registrar of Newspapers every year. This indicates that it is a growing sector where employment opportunities are increasing with each passing day. Most of the young aspirants who want to enter the print media prefer reporting, but newspapers and magazines also seek young talent as photographers, artists, editors, computer experts, librarians, and cartoonists. Students who have writing ability, graphics or photo skills, curiosity and deter →

Swachh Survekshan 2017 Rankings

Swachh Survekshan-2017 commissioned by the Ministry of Urban Development during January – February, 2017 aimed at capturing the improvement in sanitation scenario, primarily based on making cities and towns Open Defecation Free and improvement in processing of municipal solid waste. Accordingly, it is outcome oriented. Criteria and weightages for different components of sanitation related aspects used for the Survey are: Solid Waste Management including Door-to-Door collection, Processing and Disposal, ODF status etc: 45% of total 2,000 marks i.e 900 marksCitizen feedback : 30% i.e 600 of total marksIndependent observation : 25% i.e 500 marks List of the cities and their rank Ranking City State 1 Indore Madhya Pradesh 2 Bhopal Madhya Pradesh 3 Visakhapatnam (Vizag) Andhra Pradesh 4 Surat Gujarat 5 Mysuru (Mysore) Karnataka 6 Tiruchirappalli (Trichy) Tamil Nadu 7 New Delhi Municipal Council (NDMC) Delhi 8 Navi Mumbai →

What is Micro Credit and Self Help Group?

Micro Credit is defined as provision of thrift, credit and other financial services and products of very small amount to the poor in rural, semi-urban and urban areas for enabling them to raise their income levels and improve living standards. Micro Credit Institutions are those which provide these facilities. What is a Self-Help Group ? A Self-Help Group (SHG) is a registered or unregistered group of micro entrepreneurs having homogenous social and economic background, voluntarily coming together to save small amounts regularly. They mutually agree to contribute to a common fund and to meet their emergency needs on mutual help basis. The group members use collective wisdom and peer pressure to ensure proper end-use of credit and timely repayment thereof. In fact, peer pressure has been recognized as an effective substitute for collaterals. →

Genetically Modified Food or Crops

Genetic Modification Genetic modification refers to techniques used to manipulate the genetic composition of an organism by adding specific useful genes. A gene is a sequence of DNA that contains information that determines a particular characteristic/trait. All organisms have DNA (genes). Genes are located in chromosomes. Genes are units of inheritance that are passed from one generation to the next and provide instructions for development and function of the organism. Crops that are developed through genetic modification are referred to as genetically modified (GM) crops, transgenic crops or genetically engineered (GE) crops. Over the last 30 years, the field of genetic engineering has developed rapidly due to the greater understanding of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as the chemical double helix code from which genes are made. The term genetic engineering is used to describe the process by which the genetic makeup of an organism can be altered using “recombinant DNA technology.” This →