Area: 16,579 sq. km
Principal Languages: Angami, Ao, Chang, Konyak, Lotha, Sangtam, Sema and Chakhesang
Total Literacy(%): 80
History and Geography
Nagaland, the 16th state of the Indian Union, was established on 1 December 1963. It is bounded by Myanmar on the East, Arunachal Pradesh on the North, Assam on the West, and Manipur on the South. It lies between the parallels of 98 degree and 96 degree East longitude, and 26.6 degree and 27.4 degree latitude North of the Equator. The state of Nagaland has an area of 16.579 sq km with a population of 19,88,636 as per the 2001 census. The state is mostly mountainous except those areas bordering Assam valley. Mount Saramati is the highest peak in Nagaland with a height of 3,840 metres, and its range forms a natural barrier between Nagaland and Myanmar.
The Naga people belong to the Indo-Mongoloid group of people living in the contiguous areas of the North Eastern hills of India and the upper portion of Western Myanmar. The major-recognised tribes of Nagaland are Angami, Ao, Chakhesang, Chang, Khiamniungan, Kuki, Konyak, Lotha, Phom, Pochury, Rengma, Sangtam, Sumi, Yimchungru and Zeliang. The Naga languages differ from tribe to tribe, and sometimes even from one village to another. They are, however, under the Tibeto-Burma family.
In the 12th and 13th Centuries, gradual contacts with the Ahoms of present day Assam was established, but this did not have any significant impact on the traditional Naga way of life. However, in the 19th Century, the British appeared on the scene and ultimately the area was brought under British administration. After independence, this territory was made a centrally administered area in 1957 administered by the Governor of Assam. It was known as the Naga Hills Tuensang Area. This failed to quell popular aspirations and unrest began. Hence, in 1961, this was renamed as Nagaland and given the status of State of the Indian Union, which was formally inaugurated on 1 December 1963.
Nagaland is basically a land of agriculture. About 70 per cent of the population depends on agriculture. The contribution of agricultural sector in the state is very significant. Rice is the staple food. It occupies about 70 per cent of the total area under cultivation and constitutes about 75 per cent of the total food production in the state.
The major land use pattern is slash and burn cultivation locally known as Jhum. Area under jhum cultivation is about 1,01,400 hectare and under terraced cultivation. The total food production during the year was 3,86,300 MT. Out of the total land area of 16,57,587 hectares, forest area occupy approximately 8,35,436. There are wild life sanctuaries and national park, namely, Intanki and Puliebadze in Kohima District, Fakim in Tuensang and Rangapahar in Dimapur.
According to the 1981 census, Nagaland achieved cent per cent electrification in the rural areas. Nagaland has so far achieved 100 per cent village electrification reaching even the remotest village of the state.
There is no major or medium irrigation project so far constructed in the State. The irrigation works are mostly meant to divert small hill streamlets to irrigate valleys used for rice cultivation. The total area under irrigation covers 93,231.43 hectares.
Roads: The total length of roads in Nagaland is 9,860 km, which includes national highways, state highways, district and village roads. More than 900 villages in the State are linked by roads.
Railways & Aviation: Dimapur is the only place in the State from where air and train services are available. There is a tri-weekly Indian Airlines service connecting Dimapur with Kolkata.
Music and dances are an intrinsic part of Naga life. Folk songs and ballads eulogising bravery, beauty, love, generosity, etc., are transmitted from generation to generation. Likewise, dancing is an integral part of every festive occasion. Feasting, singing, dancing and merrymaking invariably accompany festivals. Some of the important festivals are Sekrenyi, Moatsu, Tokhu Emong and Tuluni.
The process of industrialisation in the state is in its infancy, but the need to have more industries has been well recognised. Nagaland Mechanised Bricks Co. Ltd., in Dimapur with one lakh capacity of bricks per day has been commissioned. Handloom and handicrafts are important cottage capacity industries, which are mainly being managed by cooperative societies. The Nagaland Handloom and Handicrafts Development Cooperation Ltd., in Dimapur is the state owned Corporation, which is responsible for promotion and marketing of handloom and handicraft products in the state.
The Nagaland Industrial Development Corporation is the premier promotional organisation in providing guidance and capital assistance to entrepreneurs. The 50 TPD Mini Cement Plant at Wazeho in Phek district has commenced production. The fruits and vegetables processing and cold storage plant at Dimapur has an installed capacity of processing 5 MT of fruits and vegetables per day and 300 MT cold storage facility.
With the opening of the state to the international tourist by relaxation of Restricted Area Permit (RAP), a good number of foreign tourists, as well as domestic tourists visit Nagaland every year. The HORNBILL festival conceived by the Tourism Department and held in the first week of December, is an annual event where all tribes of Nagaland come together to celebrate, exhibit and sell their traditional wares, foodstuffs and crafts. Three traditional festivals, namely, Sekrenyi at Touphema in Kohima district (February 26-27), Monyu at Pongo in Longleng Sub-division (April 1-3) and Moatsu at Chuchuyimlang in Mokokchung district (May 1-3) have been identified as festival destinations. There are wild life sanctuaries and national parks, namely, Intanki and Puliebadze in Kohima District, Fakim in Tuensang and Rangapahar in Dimapur.