Area: 22,327 sq. km
Principal Languages: Manipuri
Total Literacy(%): 79
History and Geography
Manipur has a long and glorious history from the beginning of the Christian era. The recorded history of kingship started from 33 A.D., which marked the coronation of Pakhangba. After Pakhangba, a series of kings ruled over the kingdom of Manipur. The independence and sovereignty of Manipur remained uninterrupted until the Burmese invaded and occupied it for seven years in the first quarter of the 19th century (1819-25). Then came British Paramountcy in 1891, and later on it was merged in the Indian Union as part "C" State on 15 October, 1949. This was replaced by a Territorial Council of 30 elected and 2 nominated members. Later in 1963, a Legislative Assembly of 30 elected and 3 nominated members was established under the Union Territories Act, 1962. The status of the administrator was raised from Chief Commissioner to the status of the Lt. Governor with effect from 19 December, 1969. Manipur attained full-fledged statehood on 21 January, 1972. With this, a Legislative Assembly consisting of 60 elected members was established.
Manipur is situated on the eastern frontier of India. It is bounded on the east by Myammar (Burma), on the north by the State of Nagaland, on the west by the State of Assam and on the south by the State of Mizoram and Myanmar. Manipur lies between 23.830 N and 25.680 N latitude and between 93.030 E and 94.780 E longitude. It has an area of 22,327 sq. kms. Physically Manipur comprises of two parts, the hills and the valley. The valley is at the centre surrounded by hills on all sides. The hills cover about 9/10 of the total area of the State. Manipur Valley is about 790 metres above the sea level. The hill ranges are higher on the north and gradually diminish in height as they reach the southern part of Manipur. The valley itself slopes down towards the south.
Agriculture and allied activities is the only mainstay of the State's economy where about 70 percent of the population depends on it. Agriculture in the State is confined to 10.48 percent of the total geographical area. The irrigated area is 30,980 ha. i.e. 13.24 percent of the net agricultural land. The State is marginally deficit in cereals and highly deficit in the production of oilseeds and pulses. In spite of the rapid advancement in the crop productivity, the faster of population growth poses a great problem to agriculture in the State.
The State Agriculture Department now plans to go ahead with diversification and commercialisation during the 11th Plan period with the following aims an objective:
- To increase the Net Agricultural Area of the State to the tune of 3.86 percent and 18.68 percent Gross Agricultural Area over the 10th Plan achievement,
- To increase the cropping intensity to from the present level of 132.73 percent to 140.45 percent by the end of 11th,
- 7.97 Percent Annual growth rate of the over all crop production and targeted 39.85 percent increase in crop production by the end of 11th Plan over the 10th Plan achievement.
To achieve the above aims and objective, thrusts are given to the following areas:
- Quality Seed Production
- Assured Irrigation
- Farm Mechanization,
- Soil Health Management
- Organic Farming
- Multiple Cropping
- Post Harvest Management
- Regulation of Markets
- Research and Development (R&D) in Bio-technology an Agro-processing
- Application of Information Technology in Agriculture and
- Transfer of Technology : (a) Establishment of Farmers Field School in each district and (b) Extension management.
Total area under forest cover is 17,219 sq.km of which 6,536 sq.km falls under dense forest while 10,681 sq.km falls under open forest. The forest cover accounts for 77.12 per cent of the State's geographical area. Siroy hill range in Ukhrul District, Manipur is the abode of Siroy Lily (Lilium macklineae), the flower which is not found elsewhere in the world. The Dzuko valley is also the only habitat of the endemic and the rarest species Dzuko Lily. Manipur is the only spot on earth in which the Brow-Antlered Deer (Cervus eldi eldi) locally known as Sangai is found. This rare deer is surviving in its natural habitat at the Keibul Lamjao.
This habitat was declared as a National Park in the year 1977 covering an area of 40 sq. km. It is unique in its own physical feature as the park lies submerged under water covered entirely on the surface by a floating entangled mass of vegetation like grass, shrubs and earth, called phumdi. The deer survives on top of this phumdi. The conservation measures taken up by the State has led to the rise of Sangai Population from a mere 14 animals in the year 1975 to 180 in the year 2003. The other area already declared as protected area besides Keibul Lamjao National Park is the Yangoupokpi - Lokchao Wildlife Sanctuary with an area of 184.40 sq. km. It is situated at Chandel District and is located on the Indo-Malayan Zoogeographical Zone. The Malayan Sun Bear is found in this wildlife sanctuary. The State is very rich in bio-diversity, large areas are still virgin forests. These are the habitats of very rare plants of rich medicinal value like Taxus baccata, ginseng, etc. It is also the home of many rare orchids and ferns.
Major and Medium Irrigation had been introduced in the State from 1980. So far 8 (eight) Major and Medium Irrigation & Multipurpose Projects have been taken up, of which 5 (five) projects had been completed up to the end of Eighth Plan. Irrigation potential of 28,500 Ha has been created with utilisation of 21,850 Ha. In addition 1,200 Ha and 900 Ha of low lying areas of Loushipat and Poiroupat respectively has been reclaimed by Thoubal Project. Running & Maintenance Schemes are on the pipe line for bridging the gap between potential created and actual utilised. 4 MGD of raw water is supplied to the State Public Health Engineering Department from Singda Multipurpose Project for water supply. 5 MGD of raw water is also being supplied from Khuga Multipurpose Project to state PHED from 2007. At present, the State Government has given special attention to accelerate the progress of the three ongoing projects and to achieve completion of Khuga Multipurpose Project in 2006, Thoubal Multipurpose Project and Dolaithabi Barrage in 2008. The State Government is continuing investigation works for taking up new projects under State Plan as well as funding by NEC.
Commerce and Industries
Handloom industry is the largest cottage industry providing maximum number of employment after agriculture in the state. This industry has been flourishing since time immemorial. It remains an important source of income especially for womenfolk of the State. The traditional skill of handloom weaving is not only a status symbol for the women-folk but also an indispensable aspect of the socio-economic life. Food Processing is another popular industry in Manipur. In view of the importance of the industry, state Government has established a Food Processing Training Centre and Food Processing Training Hall at Imphal. A Food Park is also being set up at Imphal. Indo-Myanmar Border Trade through Lan Custom Station, Moreh was opened on 12th April, 1995. The opening of Border Trade has been providing large scale employment to many families in the State. The Department of Commerce and Industries of the State Government has been acting as a liaisoning agent for promotion and development of the Border Trade. To promote Border Trade, the Ware house, Conventional Hall and Stay Facility Centre have been set up a border town Moreh
The installed capacity of the State is over 42,750 and more than 2,000 villages have been electrified. Power supply position showed a marked improvement with the availability of power from the Central Sector Generating Stations, i.e., Loktak HE Project (NHPC), Kopili HE Project, Khandong HE Project, Doyang HE Project, Rangnadi HE Project and AGBPP, Kathalguri and AGTPP, Ramchandranagar (all NEEPCO).
Commerce and Industry
The State Government continues to exert all its efforts as a facilitator for industrialisation of the State with due emphasis on the prospective and potential areas. Handloom is the most popular traditional industry providing maximum employment in the State. With the introduction of Border Trade between India and Myanmar in 1995, the Department of Commerce and Industries of the State Government has been acting as a liaisoning agent for promotion and development of Border Trade.
Roads: 3 National Highways - i) NH - 39, ii) NH - 53 an iii) NH - 150 criss-cross the State connecting all districts. Imphal, the capital of Manipur is joined by NH-39 with Nagaland on the North and Myanmar on the east, on the west with Assam by NH-53 and Mizoram on the south by NH-150.
Aviation: Imphal Airport is the second largest airport in the North Eastern Region Imphal is connected to Aizwal, Guwahati, Kolkata, Silchar and New Delhi by Indian Airlines, Jet Airways, Indigo and Air Deccan and Alliance Air. New flights from carrier like Spicejet and Kingfisher are likely to operate very soon.
Railways: The State is included in the railway map of India with opening of a rail head at Jiribam in May, 1990. It is 225 km from Imphal, Dimapur (Nagaland), 215 kms from Imphal is the nearest rail-head.
The Jiribam: Tupul Railway line has been declared as a National Project. The final location survey of 52 kms has been completed. Lan acquisition in first 10 kms is in advance stage. During feasibility study, it has been found feasible to extend the line from Tupul to Imphal.
A year in Manipur represents a cycle of festivities. Hardly a month passes by without a festival. Important festivals of the State are: Dol-jatra, LaiHaraoba, Rasa Leela, Cheiraoba, Ningol Chakouba, Rath-Jatra, Id-ul-Fitr, Imoinu Iratpa, Gaan-Ngai, Lui-Ngai-ni, Id-ul-Zuha, Yaoshang (Holi), Durga Puja, Mera Houchongba, Diwali, Kut and Christmas, etc.
Blessed with a salubrious climate and landscapes languishing in natural beauty and scenic splendour, the state extends to the tourists a warm welcome to visit again and again. Some important tourist centres in Manipur are: Shree Govindajee temple, Khwairamband Bazar (Ima Keithel), War cemeteries, Shaheed Minar, Nupi Lan (Women's War) Memorial Complex, Khonghampat Orchidarium, INA Memorial (Moirang), Loktak Lake, Keibul Lamjao National Park, Bishnu Temple at Bishnupur, Sendra, Moreh, Siroy Village, Siroy Hills, Dzuko Valley, State Museum, Kaina Tourist Home, Khongjom War Memorial Complex, etc.